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Rwanda

NOT Open Access | Changing Pattern of Plasmodium falciparum pfmdr1 Gene Polymorphisms in Southern Rwanda

August 18, 2021 - 17:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
van Loon W, Bergmann C, Habarugira F, Tacoli C, Savelsberg D, Oliveira R, Mbarushimana D, Ndoli J, Sendegeya A, Bayingana C, Mockenhaupt FP
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Aug 17;65(9):e0090121

Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) polymorphisms associate with altered antimalarial susceptibility. Between 2010 and 2018/2019, we observed that the prevalence of the wild-type allele N86 and the wild-type combination NYD increased 10-fold (4% versus 40%) and more than 2-fold (18% versus 44%), respectively.

Plasmodium falciparum K13 mutations in Africa and Asia impact artemisinin resistance and parasite fitness

July 21, 2021 - 17:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Stokes BH, Dhingra SK, Fidock DA, et al.
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Jul 19;10:e66277

The emergence of mutant K13-mediated artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites has led to widespread treatment failure across Southeast Asia. In Africa, K13-propeller genotyping confirms the emergence of the R561H mutation in Rwanda and highlights the continuing dominance of wild-type K13 elsewhere.

High prevalence of P. falciparum K13 mutations in Rwanda is associated with slow parasite clearance after treatment with artemether-lumefantrine

July 6, 2021 - 13:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Straimer J, Gandhi P, Renner KC, Schmitt EK
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 3:jiab352

In Southeast Asia, mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum k13 gene have led to delayed parasite clearance and treatment failures in malaria patients receiving artemisinin combination therapies. Until recently, relevant k13 mutations had been mostly absent from Africa.

NOT Open Access | Association of Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 R561H genotypes with delayed parasite clearance in Rwanda: an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, therapeutic efficacy study

April 22, 2021 - 08:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Uwimana A, Umulisa N, Lucchi NW, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 14:S1473-3099(21)00142-0

Partial artemisinin resistance is suspected if delayed parasite clearance (ie, persistence of parasitaemia on day 3 after treatment initiation) is observed. Validated markers of artemisinin partial resistance in southeast Asia, Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 (Pfkelch13) R561H and P574L, have been reported in Rwanda but no association with parasite clearance has been observed. We aimed to establish the efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine and genetic characterisation of Pfkelch13 alleles and their association with treatment outcomes.

Geostatistical modeling of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Rwanda

February 25, 2021 - 10:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nzabakiriraho JD, Gayawan E
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Feb 17;21(1):369

Malaria has continued to be a life-threatening disease among under-five children in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent data indicate rising cases in Rwanda after some years of decline. We aimed at estimating the spatial variations in malaria prevalence at a continuous spatial scale and to quantify locations where the prevalence exceeds the thresholds of 5% and 10% across the country. We also consider the effects of some socioeconomic and climate variables.

Assessment of perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with severe versus simple malaria

February 23, 2021 - 13:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kwizera A, Ntasumumuyange D, Small M, Rulisa S, Moscovitz AN, Magriples U
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Feb 19;16(2):e0247053

Malaria in pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The objective was to compare outcomes of simple and severe malaria and to determine whether they vary by trimester or severity of infection.

Monitoring mosquito nuisance for the development of a citizen science approach for malaria vector surveillance in Rwanda

January 13, 2021 - 10:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marilyn Milumbu Murindahabi, Willem Takken, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:36, 10 January 2021

Many countries, including Rwanda, have mosquito monitoring programmes in place to support decision making in the fight against malaria. However, these programmes can be costly, and require technical (entomological) expertise. Involving citizens in data collection can greatly support such activities, but this has not yet been thoroughly investigated in a rural African context.

Increase in Kelch 13 Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum, Southern Rwanda

January 7, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bergmann C, van Loon W, Habarugira F, Tacoli C, Jäger JC, Savelsberg D, Nshimiyimana F, Rwamugema E, Mbarushimana D, Ndoli J, Sendegeya A, Bayingana C, Mockenhaupt FP
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Jan;27(1):294-296

Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with nonsynonymous mutations in the Kelch 13 (K13) propeller domain.

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Malaria among Children Aged Six Months to 14 Years Old in Rwanda: Evidence from 2017 Rwanda Malaria Indicator Survey

November 4, 2020 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Habyarimana F, Ramroop S
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Oct 30;17(21):E7975

Malaria is a major public health risk in Rwanda where children and pregnant women are most vulnerable. This infectious disease remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Rwanda. The main objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of malaria among children aged six months to 14 years old in Rwanda and to identify the factors associated with malaria in this age group.

History of malaria control in Rwanda: implications for future elimination in Rwanda and other malaria-endemic countries

October 8, 2020 - 08:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Corine Karema, Shawn Wen, Abigail Sidibe, Jennifer L. Smith, Roly Gosling, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Marcel Tanner, Abdisalan M. Noor and Allison Tatarsky
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:356, 7 October 2020

Malaria was first reported in Rwanda in the early 1900s with significant heterogeneity and volatility in transmission over subsequent decades. Here, a comprehensive literature review of malaria transmission patterns and control strategies in Rwanda between 1900 and 2018 is presented to provide insight into successes and challenges in the country and to inform the future of malaria control in Rwanda.

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