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Southeast Asia

NOT Open Access | ASDB: A comprehensive omics database for Anopheles sinensis

February 16, 2021 - 15:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhang YJ, Lan Y, Chen B
Reference: 
Genomics. 2021 Feb 12:S0888-7543(21)00056-2

Anopheles sinensis is a key disease vector for human malaria and parasitic diseases such as malayan filariasis, and it is considered to be one of the most important malaria vectors in China and Southeast Asia. As high-throughput sequencing and assembly technology are widely used in An. sinensis, a lot of omics data have been generated, and abundant genome, mRNA transcriptome, miRNA transcriptome and resequencing results have been accumulated.

Plasmodium knowlesi infecting humans in Southeast Asia: What's next

January 6, 2021 - 13:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jeyaprakasam NK, Liew JWK, Low VL, Wan-Sulaiman WY, Vythilingam I
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Dec 31;14(12):e0008900

Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has been in the limelight since a large focus of human P. knowlesi infection was reported from Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 2004. Although this infection is transmitted across Southeast Asia, the largest number of cases has been reported from Malaysia. The increasing number of knowlesi malaria cases has been attributed to the use of molecular tools for detection, but environmental changes including deforestation likely play a major role by increasing human exposure to vector mosquitoes, which coexist with the macaque host.

Expansion of a Specific Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 Haplotype in Southeast Asia with Increased Substrate Transport

December 3, 2020 - 13:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Calçada C, Silva M, Baptista V, Thathy V, Silva-Pedrosa R, Granja D, Ferreira PE, Gil JP, Fidock DA, Veiga MI
Reference: 
mBio. 2020 Dec 1;11(6):e02093-20

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been vital in reducing malaria mortality rates since the 2000s. Their efficacy, however, is threatened by the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1) transporter plays a central role in parasite resistance to ACT partner drugs through gene copy number variations (CNV) and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using genomic epidemiology, we show that multiple pfmdr1 copies encoding the N86 and 184F haplotype are prevalent across Southeast Asia.

Molecular surveillance of anti-malarial resistance Pfdhfr and Pfdhps polymorphisms in African and Southeast Asia Plasmodium falciparum imported parasites to Wuhan, China

November 28, 2020 - 16:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tingting Jiang, Weijia Cheng, Yi Yao, Huabing Tan, Kai Wu and Jian Li
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:434, 25 November 2020

Anti-malarial drug resistance is a severe challenge for eventual control and global elimination of malaria. Resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) increases as mutations accumulate in the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. This study aimed to assess the polymorphisms and prevalence of mutation in these genes in the Plasmodium falciparum infecting migrant workers returning to Wuhan, China.

Addressing budget reduction and reallocation on health-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria-endemic countries

November 17, 2020 - 13:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ajib Diptyanusa and Karen Nelwin Zablon
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:411, 16 November 2020

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system.

NOT Open Access | Ultrasensitive diagnostics for low density asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in low transmission settings

November 7, 2020 - 13:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zainabadi K
Reference: 
J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Nov 4:JCM.01508-20

The emergence of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia has accelerated regional malaria elimination efforts. Most malaria in this and other low transmission settings exists in asymptomatic individuals, which conventional diagnostic tests lack the sensitivity to detect. This has led to the development of new ultrasensitive diagnostics that are capable of detecting these low parasitemic infections.

Transmission of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites to mosquitoes under antimalarial drug pressure

November 4, 2020 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Witmer K, Dahalan FA, Baum J, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Nov 2:AAC.00898-20

Resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is threatening to reverse recent gains in reducing global deaths from malaria. Whilst resistance manifests as delayed parasite clearance in patients the phenotype can only spread geographically via the sexual stages and mosquito transmission. In addition to their asexual killing properties, artemisinin and its derivatives sterilise sexual male gametocytes.

NOT Open Access | Absence of association between polymorphisms in the pfcoronin and pfk13 genes and the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites after treatment with artemisinin derivatives in Senegal

October 15, 2020 - 08:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Delandre O, Daffe SM, Pradines B, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Oct 9:106190

Due to resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria switched to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006 in Senegal. Several mutations in the gene coding the kelch13 helix (pfk13-propeller) were identified to be associated with in vitro and in vivo artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia.

NOT Open Access | Treating Severe Malaria

October 1, 2020 - 15:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Berman JD
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 30:ciaa887

In “Concomitant bacteremia in adults with severe falciparum malaria” in this issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, 9 of 845 Southeast Asian adults with severe malaria (1%) had bacteremia upon admission, but 4 of those 9 patients (44%) died compared with 108 of 836 (13%) nonbacteremic patients.

Syk Inhibitors: New Computational Insights into Their Intraerythrocytic Action in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

September 29, 2020 - 13:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marchetti G, Dessì A, Dallocchio R, Tsamesidis I, Pau MC, Turrini FM, Pantaleo A
Reference: 
Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 23;21(19):E7009

Resistance to antimalarial drugs has spread rapidly over the past few decades. The WHO recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, but unfortunately these approaches are losing their efficacy in large areas of Southeast Asia. In 2016, artemisinin resistance was confirmed in 5 countries of the Greater Mekong subregion. We focused our study on Syk inhibitors as antimalarial drugs.

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