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red blood cell

The malaria parasite sheddase SUB2 governs host red blood cell membrane sealing at invasion

December 9, 2020 - 07:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Collins CR, Hackett F, Howell SA, Snijders AP, Russell MR, Collinson LM, Blackman MJ
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 Dec 8;9:e61121

Red blood cell (RBC) invasion by malaria merozoites involves formation of a parasitophorous vacuole into which the parasite moves. The vacuole membrane seals and pinches off behind the parasite through an unknown mechanism, enclosing the parasite within the RBC.

Protein modification characteristics of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the infected erythrocytes

November 7, 2020 - 13:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang J, Jiang N, Sang X, Yang N, Feng Y, Chen R, Wang X, Chen Q
Reference: 
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 Nov 4:mcp.RA120.002375

Malaria elimination is still pending on the development of novel tools that rely on a deep understanding of parasite biology. Proteins of all living cells undergo a myriad number of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that are critical to multifarious life processes. An extensive proteome-wide dissection revealed a fine PTM map of most proteins in both Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe malaria, and the infected red blood cells.

NOT Open Access | A modified two-color flow cytometry assay to quantify in-vitro reinvasion and determine invasion phenotypes at low Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia

November 4, 2020 - 16:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ngoh IA, Anong DN, Fru JC, Bojang F, Mbye H, Amambua-Ngwa A
Reference: 
Exp Parasitol. 2020 Nov;218:107969

Invasion of human red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium parasites is a crucial yet poorly characterised phenotype. Two-color flow cytometry (2cFCM) promises to be a very sensitive and high throughput method for phenotyping parasite invasion. However, current protocols require high (~1.0%) parasitemia for assay set-up and need to be adapted for low parasitemia samples, which are becoming increasingly common in low transmission settings.

Actomyosin forces and the energetics of red blood cell invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

October 28, 2020 - 09:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Blake TCA, Haase S, Baum J
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Oct 26;16(10):e1009007

All symptoms of malaria disease are associated with the asexual blood stages of development, involving cycles of red blood cell (RBC) invasion and egress by the Plasmodium spp. merozoite. Merozoite invasion is rapid and is actively powered by a parasite actomyosin motor. The current accepted model for actomyosin force generation envisages arrays of parasite myosins, pushing against short actin filaments connected to the external milieu that drive the merozoite forwards into the RBC.

Plug for the parasitophorous duct: a solution of two conundra

October 20, 2020 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Prapon Wilairat and Saranya Auparakkitanon
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:370, 16 October 2020

We present two conundra in the biology of intraerythrocytic malaria parasite: how an apparent open parasitophorous duct provide direct access of only a select set of serum proteins to the parasitophorous vacuole, and how proteases mediate membrane lysis to allow merozoite egress.

NOT Open Access | Red blood cell tension protects against severe malaria in the Dantu blood group

September 23, 2020 - 09:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kariuki SN, Marin-Menendez A, Rayner JC, et al.
Reference: 
Nature. 2020 Sep 16

Malaria has had a major effect on the human genome, with many protective polymorphisms-such as the sickle-cell trait-having been selected to high frequencies in malaria-endemic regions1,2. The blood group variant Dantu provides 74% protection against all forms of severe malaria in homozygous individuals3-5, a similar degree of protection to that afforded by the sickle-cell trait and considerably greater than that offered by the best malaria vaccine.

The Human Spleen in Malaria: Filter or Shelter

May 7, 2020 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henry B, Roussel C, Carucci M, Brousse V, Ndour PA, Buffet P
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 May; 36(5):435-446

The human spleen is an immune sentinel and controls red blood cell (RBC) quality. By mechanically retaining subsets of infected RBCs, the spleen may reduce the pace at which the parasite biomass increases before the adaptive immune response operates. Conversely, the spleen may contribute to malaria pathogenesis, particularly anemia that is associated with splenomegaly.

Accounting for red blood cell accessibility reveals distinct invasion strategies in Plasmodium falciparum strains

April 23, 2020 - 10:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cai F, DeSimone TM, Hansen E, Jennings CV, Bei AK, Ahouidi AD, Mboup S, Duraisingh MT, Buckee CO
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol 16(4): e1007702

The growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in human blood causes all the symptoms of malaria. To proliferate, non-motile parasites must have access to susceptible red blood cells, which they invade using pairs of parasite ligands and host receptors that define invasion pathways. Parasites can switch invasion pathways, and while this flexibility is thought to facilitate immune evasion, it may also reflect the heterogeneity of red blood cell surfaces within and between hosts.

Blood group and size dependent stability of P. falciparum infected red blood cell aggregates in capillaries

March 25, 2020 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jötten AM, Moll K, Wahlgren M, Wixforth A, Westerhausen C
Reference: 
Biomicrofluidics, Volume 14, Issue 2

For Plasmodium falciparum related malaria (B50), one of the outstanding host factors for the development of severe disease is the ABO blood group of malaria patients, where blood group O reduces the probability of severe disease as compared to individuals of groups A, B, or AB.

Associations between red blood cell variants and malaria among children and adults from three areas of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

January 20, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Elijah Kakande, Bryan Greenhouse, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:21, 15 January 2020

Multiple red blood cell (RBC) variants appear to offer protection against the most severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Associations between these variants and uncomplicated malaria are less clear.

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