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red blood cell

NOT Open Access | Characterisation of complexes formed by parasite proteins exported into the host cell compartment of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells

March 30, 2021 - 14:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jonsdottir TK, Counihan NA, Modak JK, Kouskousis B, Sanders PR, Gabriela M, Bullen HE, Crabb BS, de Koning-Ward TF, Gilson PR
Reference: 
Cell Microbiol. 2021 Mar 28:e13332

During its intraerythrocytic life cycle, the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum supplements its nutritional requirements by scavenging substrates from the plasma through the new permeability pathways (NPPs) installed in the red blood cell (RBC) membrane. Parasite proteins of the RhopH complex: CLAG3, RhopH2, RhopH3, have been implicated in NPP activity.

NOT Open Access | A deep learning approach to the screening of malaria infection: Automated and rapid cell counting, object detection and instance segmentation using Mask R-CNN

March 2, 2021 - 11:38 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Loh R, Yong WX, Yapeter J, Subburaj K, Chandramohanadas R
Reference: 
Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2021 Mar;88:101845

Accurate and early diagnosis is critical to proper malaria treatment and hence death prevention. Several computer vision technologies have emerged in recent years as alternatives to traditional microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In this work, we used a deep learning model called Mask R-CNN that is trained on uninfected and Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

Why it might be bad for brain cells to eat malaria parasites

March 2, 2021 - 11:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Higgins MK
Reference: 
J Exp Med. 2021 Mar 1;218(3):e20202664

Malaria becomes very dangerous when it affects the brain. Cerebral malaria is caused when red blood cells, infected by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, accumulate within tiny brain blood vessels, blocking blood flow (White et al., 2013).

Breakdown in membrane asymmetry regulation leads to monocyte recognition of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells

February 23, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fraser M, Jing W, Bröer S, Kurth F, Sander LE, Matuschewski K, Maier AG
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Feb 18;17(2):e1009259

The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum relies on lipids to survive; this makes its lipid metabolism an attractive drug target. The lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is usually confined to the inner leaflet of the red blood cell membrane (RBC) bilayer; however, some studies suggest that infection with the intracellular parasite results in the presence of this lipid in the RBC membrane outer leaflet, where it could act as a recognition signal to phagocytes. Here, we used fluorescent lipid analogues and probes to investigate the enzymatic reactions responsible for maintaining asymmetry between membrane leaflets, and found that in parasitised RBCs the maintenance of membrane asymmetry was partly disrupted, and PS was increased in the outer leaflet.

The malaria parasite sheddase SUB2 governs host red blood cell membrane sealing at invasion

December 9, 2020 - 07:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Collins CR, Hackett F, Howell SA, Snijders AP, Russell MR, Collinson LM, Blackman MJ
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 Dec 8;9:e61121

Red blood cell (RBC) invasion by malaria merozoites involves formation of a parasitophorous vacuole into which the parasite moves. The vacuole membrane seals and pinches off behind the parasite through an unknown mechanism, enclosing the parasite within the RBC.

Protein modification characteristics of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the infected erythrocytes

November 7, 2020 - 13:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang J, Jiang N, Sang X, Yang N, Feng Y, Chen R, Wang X, Chen Q
Reference: 
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 Nov 4:mcp.RA120.002375

Malaria elimination is still pending on the development of novel tools that rely on a deep understanding of parasite biology. Proteins of all living cells undergo a myriad number of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that are critical to multifarious life processes. An extensive proteome-wide dissection revealed a fine PTM map of most proteins in both Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe malaria, and the infected red blood cells.

NOT Open Access | A modified two-color flow cytometry assay to quantify in-vitro reinvasion and determine invasion phenotypes at low Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia

November 4, 2020 - 16:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ngoh IA, Anong DN, Fru JC, Bojang F, Mbye H, Amambua-Ngwa A
Reference: 
Exp Parasitol. 2020 Nov;218:107969

Invasion of human red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium parasites is a crucial yet poorly characterised phenotype. Two-color flow cytometry (2cFCM) promises to be a very sensitive and high throughput method for phenotyping parasite invasion. However, current protocols require high (~1.0%) parasitemia for assay set-up and need to be adapted for low parasitemia samples, which are becoming increasingly common in low transmission settings.

Actomyosin forces and the energetics of red blood cell invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

October 28, 2020 - 09:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Blake TCA, Haase S, Baum J
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Oct 26;16(10):e1009007

All symptoms of malaria disease are associated with the asexual blood stages of development, involving cycles of red blood cell (RBC) invasion and egress by the Plasmodium spp. merozoite. Merozoite invasion is rapid and is actively powered by a parasite actomyosin motor. The current accepted model for actomyosin force generation envisages arrays of parasite myosins, pushing against short actin filaments connected to the external milieu that drive the merozoite forwards into the RBC.

Plug for the parasitophorous duct: a solution of two conundra

October 20, 2020 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Prapon Wilairat and Saranya Auparakkitanon
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:370, 16 October 2020

We present two conundra in the biology of intraerythrocytic malaria parasite: how an apparent open parasitophorous duct provide direct access of only a select set of serum proteins to the parasitophorous vacuole, and how proteases mediate membrane lysis to allow merozoite egress.

NOT Open Access | Red blood cell tension protects against severe malaria in the Dantu blood group

September 23, 2020 - 09:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kariuki SN, Marin-Menendez A, Rayner JC, et al.
Reference: 
Nature. 2020 Sep 16

Malaria has had a major effect on the human genome, with many protective polymorphisms-such as the sickle-cell trait-having been selected to high frequencies in malaria-endemic regions1,2. The blood group variant Dantu provides 74% protection against all forms of severe malaria in homozygous individuals3-5, a similar degree of protection to that afforded by the sickle-cell trait and considerably greater than that offered by the best malaria vaccine.

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