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Madagascar

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in three malaria transmission settings in Madagascar

June 5, 2021 - 06:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fanomezantsoa Ralinoro, Tovonahary Angelo Rakotomanga, Rianasoambolanoro Rakotosaona, Danielle A. Doll Rakoto, Didier Menard, Victor Jeannoda and Arsene Ratsimbasoa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:239, 27 May 2021

Assessment of the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites from various malaria transmission settings could help to define tailored local strategies for malaria control and elimination. Such assessments are currently scarce in Madagascar. The study presented here aimed to bridge this gap by investigating the genetic diversity of P. falciparum populations in three epidemiological strata (Equatorial, Tropical and Fringes) in Madagascar.

Fine-scale variation in malaria prevalence across ecological regions in Madagascar: a cross-sectional study

June 1, 2021 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rice BL, Golden CD, Hartl DL, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 May 29;21(1):1018

Large-scale variation in ecological parameters across Madagascar is hypothesized to drive varying spatial patterns of malaria infection. However, to date, few studies of parasite prevalence with resolution at finer, sub-regional spatial scales are available. As a result, there is a poor understanding of how Madagascar’s diverse local ecologies link with variation in the distribution of infections at the community and household level. Efforts to preserve Madagascar’s ecological diversity often focus on improving livelihoods in rural communities near remaining forested areas but are limited by a lack of data on their infectious disease burden.

Family, social and cultural determinants of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use in Madagascar: secondary analysis of three qualitative studies focused on children aged 5–15 years

March 30, 2021 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ammy Fiadanana Njatosoa, Chiarella Mattern, Christophe Rogier, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:168, 26 March 2021

Although it is accepted that long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use is an effective means to prevent malaria, children aged 5 to 15 years do not appear to be sufficiently protected in Madagascar; the malaria prevalence is highest in this age group. The purpose of this research is to summarize recent qualitative studies describing LLIN use among the Malagasy people with a focus on children aged 5–15 years.

Estimating the local spatio-temporal distribution of malaria from routine health information systems in areas of low health care access and reporting

February 15, 2021 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hyde E, Bonds MH, Garchitorena A, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Health Geogr. 2021 Feb 12;20(1):8

Reliable surveillance systems are essential for identifying disease outbreaks and allocating resources to ensure universal access to diagnostics and treatment for endemic diseases. Yet, most countries with high disease burdens rely entirely on facility-based passive surveillance systems, which miss the vast majority of cases in rural settings with low access to health care. This is especially true for malaria, for which the World Health Organization estimates that routine surveillance detects only 14% of global cases. The goal of this study was to develop a novel method to obtain accurate estimates of disease spatio-temporal incidence at very local scales from routine passive surveillance, less biased by populations' financial and geographic access to care.

Widespread zoophagy and detection of Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Madagascar

January 13, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Micaela Finney, Benjamin A. McKenzie, Bernadette Rabaovola, Alice Sutcliffe, Ellen Dotson and Sarah Zohdy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:25, 7 January 2021

Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.

Spatiotemporal mapping of malaria prevalence in Madagascar using routine surveillance and health survey data

October 28, 2020 - 08:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arambepola R, Keddie SH, Cameron E, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 22;10(1):18129

Malaria transmission in Madagascar is highly heterogeneous, exhibiting spatial, seasonal and long-term trends. Previous efforts to map malaria risk in Madagascar used prevalence data from Malaria Indicator Surveys. These cross-sectional surveys, conducted during the high transmission season most recently in 2013 and 2016, provide nationally representative prevalence data but cover relatively short time frames.

Malaria case management and elimination readiness in health facilities of five districts of Madagascar in 2018

October 6, 2020 - 12:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anjoli Anand, Rachel Favero, Jean-Pierre Rakotovao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:351, 1 October 2020

Madagascar’s Malaria National Strategic Plan 2018–2022 calls for progressive malaria elimination beginning in low-incidence districts (< 1 case/1000 population). Optimizing access to prompt diagnosis and quality treatment and improving outbreak detection and response will be critical to success. A malaria elimination readiness assessment (MERA) was performed in health facilities (HFs) of selected districts targeted for malaria elimination.

Variation in Anopheles distribution and predictors of malaria infection risk across regions of Madagascar

October 1, 2020 - 15:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nicholas J. Arisco, Benjamin L. Rice, Luciano M. Tantely, Romain Girod, Gauthier N. Emile, Hervet J. Randriamady, Marcia C. Castro and Christopher D. Golden
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:348, 29 September 2020

Deforestation and land use change is widespread in Madagascar, altering local ecosystems and creating opportunities for disease vectors, such as the Anopheles mosquito, to proliferate and more easily reach vulnerable, rural populations. Knowledge of risk factors associated with malaria infections is growing globally, but these associations remain understudied across Madagascar’s diverse ecosystems experiencing rapid environmental change. This study aims to uncover socioeconomic, demographic, and ecological risk factors for malaria infection across regions through analysis of a large, cross-sectional dataset.

Differential contribution of Anopheles coustani and Anopheles arabiensis to the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in two neighbouring villages of Madagascar

August 27, 2020 - 08:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Goupeyou-Youmsi J, Rakotondranaivo T, Puchot N, Peterson I, Girod R, Vigan-Womas I, Paul R, Ndiath MO, Bourgouin C
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 26;13(1):430

Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control measures. In a Malagasy region of moderate to intense transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, parasitology and entomology have been combined to survey malaria transmission in two nearby villages.

School-based sero-surveys to assess the validity of using routine health facility data to target malaria interventions in the Central Highlands of Madagascar

August 10, 2020 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Steinhardt L, Ravaoarisoa E, Vigan-Womas I, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 6:jiaa476

In low-malaria-transmission areas of Madagascar, annual parasite incidence (API) from routine data has been used to target indoor residual spraying at sub-district commune levels. To assess validity of this approach, we conducted school-based serological surveys and health facility (HF) data quality assessments in seven districts to compare API to “gold-standard” commune-level serological measures.

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