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South Africa

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of reactive, targeted indoor residual spraying for malaria control in low-transmission settings: a cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial in South Africa

March 2, 2021 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Bath D, Cook J, Kleinschmidt I, et al.
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):816-827

Increasing insecticide costs and constrained malaria budgets could make universal vector control strategies, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS), unsustainable in low-transmission settings. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a reactive, targeted IRS strategy.

Parasite genetic diversity reflects continued residual malaria transmission in Vhembe District, a hotspot in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

February 17, 2021 - 09:12 -- Open Access
Hazel B. Gwarinda, Sofonias K. Tessema, Jaishree Raman, Bryan Greenhouse and Lyn-Marié Birkholtz
Malaria Journal 2021 20:96, 16 February 2021

South Africa aims to eliminate malaria transmission by 2023. However, despite sustained vector control efforts and case management interventions, the Vhembe District remains a malaria transmission hotspot. To better understand Plasmodium falciparum transmission dynamics in the area, this study characterized the genetic diversity of parasites circulating within the Vhembe District.

Exploring public awareness of the current and future malaria risk zones in South Africa under climate change: a pilot study

November 12, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Fitchett JM, Swatton DA
Int J Biometeorol. 2020 Nov 11

Although only a small proportion of the landmass of South Africa is classified as high risk for malaria, the country experiences on-going challenges relating to malaria outbreaks. Climate change poses a growing threat to this already dire situation. While considerable effort has been placed in public health campaigns in the highest-risk regions, and national malaria maps are updated to account for changing climate, malaria cases have increased.

Modelling Malaria Incidence in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Comparison of Classical and Bayesian Methods of Estimation

July 20, 2020 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Sehlabana MA, Maposa D, Boateng A
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 13; 17(14):E5016

Malaria infects and kills millions of people in Africa, predominantly in hot regions where temperatures during the day and night are typically high. In South Africa, Limpopo Province is the hottest province in the country and therefore prone to malaria incidence. The districts of Vhembe, Mopani and Sekhukhune are the hottest districts in the province. Malaria cases in these districts are common and malaria is among the leading causes of illness and deaths in these districts.

Malaria Vectors and Vector Surveillance in Limpopo Province (South Africa): 1927 to 2018

June 15, 2020 - 15:21 -- Open Access
Braack L, Bornman R, Jager C, et al.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun 9; 17(11):E4125

Despite the annual implementation of a robust and extensive indoor residual spraying programme against malaria vectors in Limpopo Province (South Africa), significant transmission continues and is a serious impediment to South Africa’s malaria elimination objectives. In order to gain a better understanding regarding possible causes of this residual malaria, we conducted a literature review of the historical species composition and abundance of malaria vector mosquitoes in the Limpopo River Valley region of the Vhembe District, northern Limpopo Province, the region with the highest remaining annual malaria cases in South Africa.

Mosquito community composition and abundance at contrasting sites in northern South Africa, 2014-2017

June 6, 2020 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Johnson T, Braack L, Guarido M, Venter M, Gouveia Almeida AP
J Vector Ecol. 2020 Jun; 45(1):104-117

Most data on species associations and vector potential of mosquitoes in relation to arboviral infections in South Africa date back from the 1940s to late 1990s. Contextual information crucial for disease risk management and control, such as the sampling effort, diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquitoes in large parts of South Africa still remains limited. Adult mosquitoes were collected routinely from two horse farms in Gauteng Province; two wildlife reserves in Limpopo Province, at Orpen Gate in Kruger National Park (KNP) and Mnisi Area in Mpumalanga Province between 2014–2017, using carbon dioxide‐baited light and tent traps.

High levels of imported asymptomatic malaria but limited local transmission in KwaZulu-Natal, a South African malaria-endemic province nearing malaria elimination

April 18, 2020 - 13:53 -- Open Access
Jaishree Raman, Laura Gast, Devanand Moonasar, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:152, 15 April 2020

KwaZulu-Natal, one of South Africa’s three malaria endemic provinces, is nearing malaria elimination, reporting fewer than 100 locally-acquired cases annually since 2010. Despite sustained implementation of essential interventions, including annual indoor residual spraying, prompt case detection using malaria rapid diagnostics tests and treatment with effective artemisinin-based combination therapy, low-level focal transmission persists in the province. This malaria prevalence and entomological survey was therefore undertaken to identify the drivers of this residual transmission.

Erratum: "Prenatal Exposure to DDT and Pyrethroids for Malaria Control and Child Neurodevelopment: The VHEMBE Cohort, South Africa"

March 18, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Eskenazi B, An S, Rauch SA, Coker ES, Maphula A, Obida M, Crause M, Kogut KR, Bornman R, Chevrier J
Environ Health Perspect. 2020 Mar;128(3):39001

In this article, pyrethroid metabolite measurements were reported to be specific gravity-corrected. However, the statistical analyses were completed with uncorrected pyrethroid metabolite measurements. The results using specific gravity-corrected metabolite measurements are largely consistent with the uncorrected analyses.

Rainfall Trends and Malaria Occurrences in Limpopo Province, South Africa

January 15, 2020 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Adeola A, Ncongwane K, Abiodun G, Makgoale T, Rautenbach H, Botai J, Adisa O, Botai C
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5156

This contribution aims to investigate the influence of monthly total rainfall variations on malaria transmission in the Limpopo Province. For this purpose, monthly total rainfall was interpolated from daily rainfall data from weather stations. Annual and seasonal trends, as well as cross-correlation analyses, were performed on time series of monthly total rainfall and monthly malaria cases in five districts of Limpopo Province for the period of 1998 to 2017. The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5 mm of rainfall was received over the period of study.

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