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South Africa

Investment case for malaria elimination in South Africa: a financing model for resource mobilization to accelerate regional malaria elimination

August 18, 2021 - 16:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Njau, Sheetal P. Silal, Aparna Kollipara, Katie Fox, Ryleen Balawanth, Anthony Yuen, Lisa J. White, Mandisi Moya, Yogan Pillay and Devanand Moonasar
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:344, 16 August 2021

Malaria continues to be a public health problem in South Africa. While the disease is mainly confined to three of the nine provinces, most local transmissions occur because of importation of cases from neighbouring countries. The government of South Africa has reiterated its commitment to eliminate malaria within its borders. To support the achievement of this goal, this study presents a cost–benefit analysis of malaria elimination in South Africa through simulating different scenarios aimed at achieving malaria elimination within a 10-year period.

Not Open Access | Bioaccumulation of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides in amphibians from two conservation areas within malaria risk regions of South Africa

July 6, 2021 - 13:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wolmarans NJ, Bervoets L, Gerber R, Yohannes YB, Nakayama SM, Ikenaka Y, Ishizuka M, Meire P, Smit NJ, Wepener V
Reference: 
Chemosphere. 2021 Jul;274:129956

The threat to wildlife from chemical exposure exists regardless of the presence of conservation boundaries. An issue exacerbated by the use of environmentally persistent insecticides for vector control and long-range transport of legacy persistent organic pollutants. In this comparative study between two important conservation regions in South Africa, Kruger National Park (KNP) and Ndumo Game Reserve (NGR), we assessed organochlorine pesticide (OCP) accumulation in several anuran species collected from within the conservation regions.

“Maskandi experience”: exploring the use of a cultural song for community engagement in preparation for a pilot Sterile Insect Technique release programme for malaria vector control in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2019

May 6, 2021 - 07:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pinky N. Manana, Sara Jewett, Jabulani Zikhali, Dumsani Dlamini, Nondumiso Mabaso, Zothile Mlambo, Roxanne Ngobese and Givemore Munhenga
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:204, 28 April 2021

An assessment of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a complementary malaria vector control tool, is at an advanced stage in South Africa. The technique involves the release of laboratory-reared sterilized male mosquitoes of the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, raising social, ethical and regulatory concerns. Therefore, its implementation largely depends on community participation and acceptance. Against this background, it is critical that robust and effective community strategies are developed. This study describes the development of a cultural song to engage the community and increase awareness on SIT and malaria control in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Community knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria in Ha-Lambani, Limpopo Province, South Africa: a cross-sectional household survey

April 21, 2021 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mukhethwa Munzhedzi, Elizabeth T. Rogawski McQuade, Jennifer L. Guler, Piper E. Shifflett, Sara Krivacsy, Rebecca Dillingham and Pascal O. Bessong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:188, 17 April 2021

Malaria remains a global health concern and is endemic in Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu Natal Provinces of South Africa, which aims to eliminate malaria by 2025. Community engagement plays a significant role in improving the acceptability and effectiveness of programmes aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The success of such intervention efforts depends on the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the community, and understanding the KAP of community residents may support malaria control efforts in the locality. In this context, a cross-sectional household survey to assess community KAP on malaria transmission and prevention in the Ha-Lambani village, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province was conducted.

Estimates of the population size and dispersal range of Anopheles arabiensis in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for a planned pilot programme to release sterile male mosquitoes

April 20, 2021 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaiser ML, Wood OR, Damiens D, Brooke BD, Koekemoer LL, Munhenga G
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 19;14(1):205

Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector, recently implicated as contributing to ongoing residual malaria transmission in South Africa, which feeds and rests both indoors and outdoors. This species is, therefore, not effectively targeted using core malaria vector control interventions alone. Additionally, increasing resistance to available insecticides necessitates investigations into complementary non-insecticide-based vector control methods for outdoor-resting mosquitoes. The feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a complementary vector control intervention is being investigated in South Africa. Successful implementation of an SIT programme largely depends on inundating a target insect population with sterilized laboratory-bred males. Therefore, knowledge of the native population size and dispersal ability of released sterile laboratory-reared males is critical. In this study, we estimated the male An. arabiensis population size and the dispersal of released males in an area targeted for a pilot sterile male release programme.

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of reactive, targeted indoor residual spraying for malaria control in low-transmission settings: a cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial in South Africa

March 2, 2021 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bath D, Cook J, Kleinschmidt I, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):816-827

Increasing insecticide costs and constrained malaria budgets could make universal vector control strategies, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS), unsustainable in low-transmission settings. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a reactive, targeted IRS strategy.

Parasite genetic diversity reflects continued residual malaria transmission in Vhembe District, a hotspot in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

February 17, 2021 - 09:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hazel B. Gwarinda, Sofonias K. Tessema, Jaishree Raman, Bryan Greenhouse and Lyn-Marié Birkholtz
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:96, 16 February 2021

South Africa aims to eliminate malaria transmission by 2023. However, despite sustained vector control efforts and case management interventions, the Vhembe District remains a malaria transmission hotspot. To better understand Plasmodium falciparum transmission dynamics in the area, this study characterized the genetic diversity of parasites circulating within the Vhembe District.

Exploring public awareness of the current and future malaria risk zones in South Africa under climate change: a pilot study

November 12, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fitchett JM, Swatton DA
Reference: 
Int J Biometeorol. 2020 Nov 11

Although only a small proportion of the landmass of South Africa is classified as high risk for malaria, the country experiences on-going challenges relating to malaria outbreaks. Climate change poses a growing threat to this already dire situation. While considerable effort has been placed in public health campaigns in the highest-risk regions, and national malaria maps are updated to account for changing climate, malaria cases have increased.

Modelling Malaria Incidence in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Comparison of Classical and Bayesian Methods of Estimation

July 20, 2020 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sehlabana MA, Maposa D, Boateng A
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 13; 17(14):E5016

Malaria infects and kills millions of people in Africa, predominantly in hot regions where temperatures during the day and night are typically high. In South Africa, Limpopo Province is the hottest province in the country and therefore prone to malaria incidence. The districts of Vhembe, Mopani and Sekhukhune are the hottest districts in the province. Malaria cases in these districts are common and malaria is among the leading causes of illness and deaths in these districts.

Malaria Vectors and Vector Surveillance in Limpopo Province (South Africa): 1927 to 2018

June 15, 2020 - 15:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Braack L, Bornman R, Jager C, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun 9; 17(11):E4125

Despite the annual implementation of a robust and extensive indoor residual spraying programme against malaria vectors in Limpopo Province (South Africa), significant transmission continues and is a serious impediment to South Africa’s malaria elimination objectives. In order to gain a better understanding regarding possible causes of this residual malaria, we conducted a literature review of the historical species composition and abundance of malaria vector mosquitoes in the Limpopo River Valley region of the Vhembe District, northern Limpopo Province, the region with the highest remaining annual malaria cases in South Africa.

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