Malaria elimination is the goal for Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Intensive interventions implemented since 2004 have reduced prevalence, but progress has stalled in recent years. A challenge for elimination has been malaria infections in residents acquired during travel to mainland Equatorial Guinea. The present article quantifies how off-island contributes to remaining malaria prevalence on Bioko Island, and investigates the potential role of a pre-erythrocytic vaccine in making further progress towards elimination.
At the beginning of 2019, a sudden surge of malaria cases was observed in the district of Riaba, Bioko Island. Between January and April, confirmed malaria cases increased 3.8-fold compared to the same period in 2018. Concurrently, anopheline human biting rate (HBR) increased 2.1-fold. During the outbreak, 82.2% of the district population was tested for malaria with a rapid diagnostic test; 37.2% of those tested had a detectable infection and were treated according to national guidelines.
Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) is a potential malaria vaccine candidate, but various polymorphisms of the pfcsp gene among global P. falciparum population become the major barrier to the effectiveness of vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and natural selection of pfcsp in Bioko and the comparison among global P. falciparum population.
Quality control of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is necessary to ensure that spray operators (SOs) deposit the correct concentration of insecticide on sprayed structures, while also confirming that spray records are not being falsified.
Glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an essential enzyme that protects red blood cells from oxidative damage. Although G6PD‐deficient alleles appear to confer a protective effect of malaria, the link with clinical protection against Plasmodium infection is conflicting.