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Preliminary review on the prevalence, proportion, geographical distribution, and characteristics of naturally acquired Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in mosquitoes, macaques, and humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis

March 17, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Kotepui M, Masangkay FR, Kotepui KU, Milanez GJ
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 12;21(1):259

Plasmodium cynomolgi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported as a naturally acquired human infection. The present study aims to systematically review reports on naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in humans, mosquitoes, and macaques to provide relevant data for pre-emptive surveillance and preparation in the event of an outbreak of zoonotic malaria in Southeast Asia.

Prevalence of simian malaria parasites in macaques of Singapore

January 27, 2021 - 11:23 -- Open Access
Li MI, Mailepessov D, Vythilingam I, Lee V, Lam P, Ng LC, Tan CH
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jan 25;15(1):e0009110

Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite currently recognized as the fifth causative agent of human malaria. Recently, naturally acquired P. cynomolgi infection in humans was also detected in Southeast Asia. The main reservoir of both parasites is the long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, which are indigenous in this region. Due to increased urbanization and changes in land use, there has been greater proximity and interaction between the long-tailed macaques and the general population in Singapore.

NOT Open Access | Natural Plasmodium infection in wild macaques of three states in peninsular Malaysia

November 4, 2020 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Amir A, Shahari S, Liew JWK, de Silva JR, Khan MB, Lai MY, Snounou G, Abdullah ML, Gani M, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Lau YL
Acta Trop. 2020 Nov;211:105596

Zoonotic cases of Plasmodium knowlesi account for most malaria cases in Malaysia, and humans infected with P. cynomolgi, another parasite of macaques have recently been reported in Sarawak. To date the epidemiology of malaria in its natural Macaca reservoir hosts remains little investigated. In this study we surveyed the prevalence of simian malaria in wild macaques of three states in Peninsular Malaysia, namely Pahang, Perak and Johor using blood samples from 103 wild macaques (collected by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia) subjected to microscopic examination and nested PCR targeting the Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

Plasmodium knowlesi and other malaria parasites in long-tailed macaques from the Philippines

April 29, 2019 - 13:15 -- Open Access
Lief Erikson Gamalo, Judeline Dimalibot, Khamisah Abdul Kadir, Balbir Singh and Vachel Gay Paller
Malaria Journal 2019 18:147, 24 April 2019

Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque) is the most widespread species of macaque in Southeast Asia and the only species of monkey found naturally in the Philippines. The species is the natural host for the zoonotic malaria species, Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi and for the potentially zoonotic species, Plasmodium inui. Moreover, other Plasmodium species such as Plasmodium coatneyi and Plasmodium fieldi are also natural parasites of M. fascicularis. The aims of this study were to identify and determine the prevalence of Plasmodium species infecting wild and captive long-tailed macaques from the Philippines.

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