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Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium species in Conflicted Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) Pakistan

September 8, 2021 - 16:55 -- Open Access
Nadeem MF, Khattak AA, Zeeshan N, Awan UA, Alam S, Ahmed W, Gul S, Afroz A, Sughra K, Rashid U, Khan MAU
Braz J Biol. 2021 Aug 27;83:e247219

Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants

Predictors of knowledge and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for the prevention of malaria among the pregnant women in Pakistan

August 25, 2021 - 17:27 -- Open Access
Ramesh Kumar, Midhat Farzeen, Jamil Ahmed, Manohar Lal and Ratana Somrongthong
Malaria Journal 2021 20:347, 23 August 2021

Malaria is endemic to Pakistan with high prevalence among pregnant women and linked with maternal anaemia, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth, and low birth weight. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a proven and cost-effective intervention preventing malaria among pregnant women. The present study aimed to explore predictors of knowledge and use of LLINs among pregnant women in Pakistan.

Plasmodium in the bone marrow: case series from a hospital in Pakistan, 2007–2015

June 9, 2021 - 07:49 -- Open Access
Muhammad Shariq Shaikh, Basim Ali, Mahin Janjua, Ayesha Akbar, Syed Arish Haider, Bushra Moiz, Ahmed Raheem, John Kevin Baird and Mohammad Asim Beg
Malaria Journal 2021 20:254, 8 June 2021

Malaria is a life-threatening, multisystem disease caused by the plasmodial parasite with a global incidence of approximately 229 million annually. The parasites are known to have unique and crucial interactions with various body tissues during its life cycle, notably the liver, spleen, and recent work has shown the bone marrow to be a reservoir of infection.

Prevalence of clinical malaria and household characteristics of patients in tribal districts of Pakistan

May 5, 2021 - 11:32 -- Open Access
Karim AM, Yasir M, Ali T, Malik SK, Ullah I, Qureshi NA, Yuanting H, Azhar EI, Jin HJ
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 May 3;15(5):e0009371

Malaria, disproportionately affects poor people more than any other disease of public health concern in developing countries. In resource-constrained environments, monitoring the occurrence of malaria is essential for the success of national malaria control programs. Militancy and military conflicts have been a major challenge in monitoring the incidence and controlling malaria and other emerging infectious diseases. The conflicts and instability in Afghanistan have resulted in the migration of refugees into the war-torn tribal districts of Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province and the possible introduction of many contagious epidemics. Although malaria is very common in all tribal districts, molecular, clinical and epidemiological data are scarce in these high-burden districts. Therefore, for the proper surveillance, detection, and control of malaria, obtaining and analyzing reliable data in these districts is essential.

NOT Open Access | Assessment of Microscopic Detection of Malaria with Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in War-Torn Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan

April 14, 2021 - 08:17 -- NOT Open Access
Nadeem MF, Khattak AA, Zeeshan N, Awan UA, Yaqoob A
Acta Parasitol. 2021 Apr 11

Diagnostic accuracy of malaria is critical for early treatment, control, and elimination of malaria, especially in war-affected malaria-endemic areas. Microscopic detection of Plasmodium species has been the gold standard in remote malaria-endemic regions. However, the diagnostic accuracy is still questioned, especially in discriminating mixed and submicroscopic parasitic levels. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of microscopic examination against nested PCR analysis in war-torn malaria-endemic Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan.

Molecular surveillance of drug resistance: Plasmodium falciparum artemisinin resistance single nucleotide polymorphisms in Kelch protein propeller (K13) domain from Southern Pakistan

April 14, 2021 - 07:48 -- Open Access
Najia Karim Ghanchi, Bushra Qurashi, Hadiqa Raees and Mohammad Asim Beg
Malaria Journal 2021 20:176, 7 April 2021

K13 propeller (k13) polymorphism are useful molecular markers for tracking the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Polymorphisms are reported from Cambodia with rapid invasion of the population and almost near fixation in south East Asia. The study describes single nucleotide polymorphisms in Kelch protein propeller domain of P. falciparum associated with artemisinin resistance from Southern Pakistan.

Genetic characterization of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Pakistan using circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp) and merozoite surface protein-1 (pvmsp-1) genes as genetic markers

March 3, 2021 - 15:26 -- Open Access
Zainab Bibi, Anam Fatima, Rehana Rani, Ayesha Maqbool, Samea Khan, Shumaila Naz and Shahid Waseem
Malaria Journal 2021 20:112, 25 February 2021

Plasmodium vivax contributes to over 70% malaria burden in Pakistan, but limited data exists on various aspects including genetic diversity of the parasite as compared to other parts of the world. Since the information about the genetic diversity of P. vivax assists to understand the population dynamics of the parasite, the current study was designed to understand population divergence of P. vivax in Pakistan using circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp) and merozoite surface protein-1 (pvmsp-1) genes as molecular markers.

Effectiveness of a health education intervention on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women of Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

June 30, 2020 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Ramesh Kumar, Midhat Farzeen, Assad Hafeez, Baseer Khan Achakzai, Muskan Vankwani, Manohar Lal, Rabia Iqbal and Ratana Somrongthong
Malaria Journal 2020 19:232, 29 June 2020

About one quarter of pregnant women in the population of Pakistan are using long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) for prevention of malaria. Past research reported that adequate information and education would act as mediator to change behaviour among patients for prevention of malaria infection. The effective use of LLINs would contribute to reduction of disease burden caused by malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of health education on the adoption of LLINs among pregnant women living in Tharparkar, a remote district in Sindh Province, Pakistan.

Surveillance of genetic markers associated with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy in Pakistan, 2018–2019

June 9, 2020 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Abdul Qader Khan, Leyre Pernaute-Lau, Aamer Ali Khattak, Sanna Luijcx, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Mubashir Hussain, Taj Ali Khan, Farees Uddin Mufti and Ulrika Morris
Malaria Journal 2020 19:206, 8 June 2020

The spread of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia poses a significant threat for current anti-malarial treatment guidelines globally. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of molecular markers of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in the four provinces with the highest malaria burden in Pakistan, after introducing artemether–lumefantrine as first-line treatment in 2017.

Correction to: Occurrence and seasonal variation of human Plasmodium infection in Punjab Province, Pakistan

January 14, 2020 - 10:21 -- Open Access
Qureshi NA, Fatima H, Afzal M, Khattak AA, Nawaz MA
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 8; 20(1):25

After publication of the original article [1], we were notified that an author’s name has been erroneously spelled. Aamir Ali Khattak should be replaced with Aamer Ali Khattak.

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