We remain largely without effective prophylactic/therapeutic interventions for COVID-19. Although many human COVID-19 clinical trials are ongoing, there remains a deficiency of supportive preclinical drug efficacy studies to help guide decisions. Here we assessed the prophylactic/therapeutic efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a drug of interest for COVID-19 management, in two animal disease models.
Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug being tested as a potential treatment for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Although the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 remains uncertain, it may serve as a potential prophylactic agent especially in those at high risk, such as healthcare workers, household contacts of infected patients, and the immunocompromised.
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used in the treatment of malaria, rheumatologic disease such as lupus, and most recently, COVID-19. These uses raise concerns about its safe use in the setting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, especially as 11% of African American men carry the G6PD A- variant. However, limited data exist regarding the safety of HCQ in this population.
Hydroxychloroquine is used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases, and its potential use against COVID-19 is currently under investigation. Thus far, information on interactions of hydroxychloroquine with drug transporters mediating drug-drug interactions is limited. We assessed the inhibition of important efflux (P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)) and uptake transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1) by hydroxychloroquine, tested its P-gp and BCRP substrate characteristics, and evaluated the induction of pharmacokinetically relevant genes regulated by the nuclear pregnane X (PXR) (CYP3A4, ABCB1) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2).
Quinoline (QN) derivatives are often used for the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Chloroquine (CQ), a protonated, weakly basic drug, exerts its antimalarial effect mainly by increasing pH and accumulating in the food vacuole of the parasites.
Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been commonly used for the treatment and prevention of malaria, and the treatment of autoimmune diseases for several decades. As their new mechanisms of actions are identified in recent years, CQ and HCQ have wider therapeutic applications, one of which is to treat viral infectious diseases.
An 84-year-old woman with hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic kidney disease presented with fever and was diagnosed with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has recently emerged as a global health threat. To address this health emergency, various therapeutic approaches are currently under investigation. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as COVID-19 therapies, and thus World Health Organization (WHO) mentioned that "Current data shows that this drug does not reduce deaths among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, nor help people with mild or moderate disease."
Coronavirus pandemic has caused a vast number of deaths worldwide. Thus creating an urgent need to develop effective counteragents against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Many antiviral drugs have been repurposed for treatment but implicated minimal recovery, which further advanced the need for clearer insights and innovation to derive effective therapeutics. Strategically, Noscapine, an approved antitussive drug with positive effects on lung linings may show favorable outcomes synergistically with antiviral drugs in trials.