Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms play a role in adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Inversion polymorphisms are implicated in the very high ecological flexibility of the three main malaria vector species of the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex, facilitating the exploitation of anthropogenic environmental modifications and promoting a strong association with humans. In addition to extending the species’ spatial and temporal distribution, inversions are associated with epidemiologically relevant mosquito behavior and physiology, underscoring their medical importance. We here present novel PCR-RFLP based assays strongly predictive of genotype for the cosmopolitan 2Rb inversion in An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, a development which overcomes the numerous constraints inherent to traditional cytological karyotyping.