Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have played an important role in reducing the global malaria burden since 2000. They are a core prevention tool used widely by people at risk of malaria. The Vector Control Prequalification mechanism of the Word Health Organization (WHO-Vector Control PQ) established the testing and evaluation guidelines for LLINs before registration for public use. In the present study, two new brands of deltamethrin-impregnated nets (Yahe® LN and Panda® Net 2.0) were evaluated in an experimental hut against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in M’Bé nearby Bouaké, central Côte d’Ivoire.
The efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF) and pyrethroid insecticides (PPF-ITNs) is being assessed in clinical trials to determine whether they provide greater protection from malaria than standard pyrethroid-treated ITNs in areas where mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids. Understanding the entomological mode of action of this new ITN class will aide interpretation of the results from these trials.
The rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action for indoor residual spraying (IRS) is recommended for improving malaria vector control and managing insecticide resistance. Insecticides with new chemistries are urgently needed. Broflanilide is a newly discovered insecticide under consideration. We investigated the efficacy of a wettable powder (WP) formulation of broflanilide (VECTRON T500) for IRS on mud and cement wall substrates in laboratory and experimental hut studies against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Benin, in comparison with pirimiphos-methyl CS (Actellic 300CS).
Novel chemistry for vector control is urgently needed to counter insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Here a new meta-diamide insecticide, broflanilide (TENEBENALTM), was evaluated in East African experimental huts in Moshi, northern Tanzania. Two consecutive experimental hut trials with broflanilide 50WP were conducted; the first evaluating the efficacy of three concentrations, 50 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2 using a prototype formulation, and the second trial evaluating an improved formulation.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are currently the primary method of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to a significant reduction in malaria burden over the past 15 years. However, this progress is threatened by the wide-scale selection of insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. It is, therefore, important to accelerate the generation of evidence for new classes of LLINs.
Fenazaquin, pyridaben, tolfenpyrad and fenpyroximate are Complex I inhibitors offering a new mode of action for insecticidal malaria vector control. However, extended exposure to pyrethroid based products such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has created mosquito populations that are largely pyrethroid-resistant, often with elevated levels of P450s that can metabolise and neutralise diverse substrates.
A new generation of IRS insecticides which can provide improved and prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations are being developed. Fludora® Fusion is a new IRS insecticide containing a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin, a neonicotinoid.
Royal Guard is a new insecticide-treated bed-net incorporated with a mixture of alpha-cypermethrin and pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator). We assessed its efficacy and wash-resistance in laboratory and experimental hut studies following WHO guidelines. Mosquitoes that survived exposure to the net were kept in separate oviposition chambers and observed for the reproductive effects of pyriproxyfen.
New classes of insecticides with novel modes of action, which can provide effective and prolonged control of insecticide-resistant malaria vector populations, are urgently needed for indoor residual spraying. Such insecticides can be included in a rotation plan to manage and prevent further development of resistance in mosquito vectors of malaria. Chlorfenapyr, a novel pyrrole insecticide with a unique mode of action, is being developed as a long-lasting IRS formulation.
Malaria is the deadliest mosquito-borne disease and kills predominantly people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The now widespread mosquito resistance to pyrethroids, with rapidly growing resistance to other insecticide classes recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), may overturn the successes gained in mosquito control in recent years. It is of utmost importance to search for new, inexpensive, and safe alternatives, with new modes of action, that might improve the efficacy of current insecticides.