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rapid diagnostic tests

Rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

November 7, 2020 - 12:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agarwal R, Choi L, Johnson S, Takwoingi Y
Reference: 
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Nov 4;11:CD013218

Plasmodium vivax (P vivax) is a focus of malaria elimination. It is important because P vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection are co‐endemic in some areas. There are asymptomatic carriers of P vivax, and the treatment for P vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria differs from that used in other types of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) will help distinguish P vivax from other malaria species to help treatment and elimination. There are RDTs available that detect P vivax parasitaemia through the detection of P vivax‐specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigens.

NOT Open Access | Assessing Village Health Workers' Ability to Perform and Interpret Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria 4 Years after Initial Training: A Cross-Sectional Study

November 7, 2020 - 12:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Miller JS, Mbusa RK, Baguma S, Patel P, Matte M, Ntaro M, Bwambale S, Kenney J, Guiles D, Mulogo EM, Stone GS
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Nov 2

Village health workers (VHWs) in Bugoye subcounty, Uganda, provide integrated community case management (iCCM) care to children younger than 5 years for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea. We assessed the longevity of VHWs' skills in performing and reading malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) 4 years after initial training, comparing VHWs who had completed initial iCCM training 1 year before the study with VHWs who had completed training 4 years before the study. Both groups received quarterly refresher trainings.

Malaria case management and elimination readiness in health facilities of five districts of Madagascar in 2018

October 6, 2020 - 12:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anjoli Anand, Rachel Favero, Jean-Pierre Rakotovao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:351, 1 October 2020

Madagascar’s Malaria National Strategic Plan 2018–2022 calls for progressive malaria elimination beginning in low-incidence districts (< 1 case/1000 population). Optimizing access to prompt diagnosis and quality treatment and improving outbreak detection and response will be critical to success. A malaria elimination readiness assessment (MERA) was performed in health facilities (HFs) of selected districts targeted for malaria elimination.

Establishing a National Molecular Surveillance Program for the Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Markers of Resistance to Antimalarial Drugs in Haiti

October 1, 2020 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hamre KES, Pierre B, Namuyinga R, Mace K, Rogier EW, Udhayakumar V, Boncy J, Lemoine JF, Chang MA
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 28

Chloroquine remains the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Haiti, and until recently, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was the second-line treatment. A few studies have reported the presence of molecular markers for resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasites, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy studies (TESs) have been limited. Recognizing the history of antimalarial resistance around the globe and the challenges of implementing TESs in low-endemic areas, the Ministry of Health established a surveillance program to detect molecular markers of antimalarial resistance in Haiti.

Stratifying malaria receptivity in Bangladesh using archived rapid diagnostic tests

September 24, 2020 - 08:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
André Barembaye Sagna, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Shamsun Naher, Shayla Islam, M. M. Aktaruzzaman, Mohammad Shafiul Alam and Cristian Koepfli
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:345, 23 September 2020

Surveillance of low-density infections and of exposure to vectors is crucial to understand where malaria elimination might be feasible, and where the risk of outbreaks is high. Archived rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used by national malaria control and elimination programs for clinical diagnosis, present a valuable, yet rarely used resource for in-depth studies on malaria epidemiology.

Clinical relevance of low-density Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in untreated febrile children: A cohort study

September 23, 2020 - 08:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hartley MA, Hofmann N, D'Acremont V, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 21;17(9):e1003318

Low-density (LD) Plasmodium infections are missed by standard malaria rapid diagnostic tests (standard mRDT) when the blood antigen concentration is below the detection threshold. The clinical impact of these LD infections is unknown. This study investigates the clinical presentation and outcome of untreated febrile children with LD infections attending primary care facilities in a moderately endemic area of Tanzania.

Implementation of a malaria sentinel surveillance system in Togo: a pilot study

September 10, 2020 - 08:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anne Thomas, Tchaa A. Bakai, Tinah Atcha-Oubou, Tchassama Tchadjobo and Nicolas Voirin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:330, 9 September 2020

In Togo, the National Malaria Control Programme, in collaboration with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, has implemented a pilot study for malaria sentinel surveillance since 2017, which consists of collecting information in real time and analysing this information for decision-making. The first 20 months of malaria morbidity and mortality trends, and malaria case management in health facilities included in the surveillance were assessed.

Ultra-sensitive RDT performance and antigen dynamics in a high-transmission Plasmodium falciparum setting in Mali

September 5, 2020 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emily N. Reichert, Jen C. C. Hume, Hannah C. Slater, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:323, 3 September 2020

The recent expansion of tools designed to accurately quantify malaria parasite-produced antigens has enabled us to evaluate the performance of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as a function of the antigens they detect—typically histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

ITEM-THREE analysis of a monoclonal anti-malaria antibody reveals its assembled epitope on the pfMSP119 antigen

September 1, 2020 - 10:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Opuni KFM, Koy C, Russ M, Reepmeyer M, Danquah BD, Weresow M, Alef A, Lorenz P, Thiesen HJ, Glocker MO
Reference: 
J Biol Chem. 2020 Aug 26:jbc.RA120.014802

Rapid diagnostic tests are first line assays for diagnosing infectious diseases, such as malaria. To minimize false positive and false negative test results in population screening assays, high quality reagents and well characterized antigens and antibodies are needed. An important property of antigen - antibody binding is recognition specificity which best can be estimated by mapping an antibody's epitope on the respective antigen.

NOT Open Access | Pandemic's fallout on malaria control appears limited so far

August 24, 2020 - 15:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Roberts L
Reference: 
Science. 2020 Aug 21;369(6506):892

Back in March when COVID-19 hit, some scientists worried malaria cases and deaths might soar. African countries went on lockdown; worried about mass gatherings, they suspended campaigns to distribute mosquito-fighting bed nets. Fears abounded that with clinics overwhelmed by COVID-19, patients would be unable to get treatment for malaria.

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