Plasmodium vivax (P vivax) is a focus of malaria elimination. It is important because P vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection are co‐endemic in some areas. There are asymptomatic carriers of P vivax, and the treatment for P vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria differs from that used in other types of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) will help distinguish P vivax from other malaria species to help treatment and elimination. There are RDTs available that detect P vivax parasitaemia through the detection of P vivax‐specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigens.
rapid diagnostic tests
Village health workers (VHWs) in Bugoye subcounty, Uganda, provide integrated community case management (iCCM) care to children younger than 5 years for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea. We assessed the longevity of VHWs' skills in performing and reading malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) 4 years after initial training, comparing VHWs who had completed initial iCCM training 1 year before the study with VHWs who had completed training 4 years before the study. Both groups received quarterly refresher trainings.
Madagascar’s Malaria National Strategic Plan 2018–2022 calls for progressive malaria elimination beginning in low-incidence districts (< 1 case/1000 population). Optimizing access to prompt diagnosis and quality treatment and improving outbreak detection and response will be critical to success. A malaria elimination readiness assessment (MERA) was performed in health facilities (HFs) of selected districts targeted for malaria elimination.
Chloroquine remains the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Haiti, and until recently, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was the second-line treatment. A few studies have reported the presence of molecular markers for resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasites, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy studies (TESs) have been limited. Recognizing the history of antimalarial resistance around the globe and the challenges of implementing TESs in low-endemic areas, the Ministry of Health established a surveillance program to detect molecular markers of antimalarial resistance in Haiti.
Surveillance of low-density infections and of exposure to vectors is crucial to understand where malaria elimination might be feasible, and where the risk of outbreaks is high. Archived rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used by national malaria control and elimination programs for clinical diagnosis, present a valuable, yet rarely used resource for in-depth studies on malaria epidemiology.
Low-density (LD) Plasmodium infections are missed by standard malaria rapid diagnostic tests (standard mRDT) when the blood antigen concentration is below the detection threshold. The clinical impact of these LD infections is unknown. This study investigates the clinical presentation and outcome of untreated febrile children with LD infections attending primary care facilities in a moderately endemic area of Tanzania.
In Togo, the National Malaria Control Programme, in collaboration with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, has implemented a pilot study for malaria sentinel surveillance since 2017, which consists of collecting information in real time and analysing this information for decision-making. The first 20 months of malaria morbidity and mortality trends, and malaria case management in health facilities included in the surveillance were assessed.
The recent expansion of tools designed to accurately quantify malaria parasite-produced antigens has enabled us to evaluate the performance of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as a function of the antigens they detect—typically histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
Rapid diagnostic tests are first line assays for diagnosing infectious diseases, such as malaria. To minimize false positive and false negative test results in population screening assays, high quality reagents and well characterized antigens and antibodies are needed. An important property of antigen - antibody binding is recognition specificity which best can be estimated by mapping an antibody's epitope on the respective antigen.
Back in March when COVID-19 hit, some scientists worried malaria cases and deaths might soar. African countries went on lockdown; worried about mass gatherings, they suspended campaigns to distribute mosquito-fighting bed nets. Fears abounded that with clinics overwhelmed by COVID-19, patients would be unable to get treatment for malaria.