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west africa

Systematic identification of plausible pathways to potential harm via problem formulation for investigational releases of a population suppression gene drive to control the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in West Africa

March 30, 2021 - 14:07 -- Open Access
John B. Connolly, John D. Mumford, Silke Fuchs, Geoff Turner, Camilla Beech, Ace R. North and Austin Burt
Malaria Journal 2021 20:170, 29 March 2021

Population suppression gene drive has been proposed as a strategy for malaria vector control. A CRISPR-Cas9-based transgene homing at the doublesex locus (dsxFCRISPRh) has recently been shown to increase rapidly in frequency in, and suppress, caged laboratory populations of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Here, problem formulation, an initial step in environmental risk assessment (ERA), was performed for simulated field releases of the dsxFCRISPRh transgene in West Africa.

Seeking research questions from implementers: considerations for leveraging ground actors research needs in the fight against malaria in West Africa

March 10, 2021 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Tete S. Amouh, Saidou Malam Ekoye, Césaire D. Ahanhanzo, Tinga Robert Guiguemdé and Issiaka Sombié
Malaria Journal 2021 20:140, 8 March 2021

To strengthen the fight against malaria, it is imperative to identify weaknesses and possible solutions in order to improve programmes implementation. This study reports experiences gained from collaboration between decision-makers and researchers from a World Bank project (Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Sahel, SM/NTD). The objectives of this paper were to identify bottlenecks in malaria programme implementation as well as related research questions they bring up.

Improved BioGents® Sentinel trap with heat (BGSH) for outdoor collections of Anopheline species in Burkina Faso and Mali, West Africa

February 2, 2021 - 16:32 -- Open Access
Guindo A, Epopa PS, Doumbia S, Millogo AA, Diallo B, Yao FA, Yagoure B, Tripet F, Diabate A, Coulibaly MB
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 28;14(1):82

Since the late 1990s, malaria control programmes have relied extensively on mass bednet distribution and indoor residual spraying. Both interventions use pesticides and target mosquitoes coming indoors either to feed or to rest. Unfortunately, these intensified vector control campaigns have resulted in mosquito populations with high levels of resistance to most of the chemical compounds used against them and which are increasingly exophagic and exophillic, hence difficult to monitor indoors. Consequently, there is an urgent need for novel tools to sample outdoor anopheline populations for monitoring interventions and disease surveillance programmes.

Resistance to pirimiphos-methyl in West African Anopheles is spreading via duplication and introgression of the Ace1 locus

January 26, 2021 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Grau-Bové X, Lucas E, Weetman D, et al.
PLoS Genet. 2021 Jan 21;17(1):e1009253

Vector population control using insecticides is a key element of current strategies to prevent malaria transmission in Africa. The introduction of effective insecticides, such as the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl, is essential to overcome the recurrent emergence of resistance driven by the highly diverse Anopheles genomes. Here, we use a population genomic approach to investigate the basis of pirimiphos-methyl resistance in the major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and A. coluzzii. A combination of copy number variation and a single non-synonymous substitution in the acetylcholinesterase gene, Ace1, provides the key resistance diagnostic in an A. coluzzii population from Côte d'Ivoire that we used for sequence-based association mapping, with replication in other West African populations.

Laboratory and microcosm experiments reveal contrasted adaptive responses to ammonia and water mineralisation in aquatic stages of the sibling species Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii

January 14, 2021 - 08:47 -- Open Access
Akpodiete NO, Tripet F
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 6;14(1):17

The sibling species of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii co-exist in many parts of West Africa and are thought to have recently diverged through a process of ecological speciation with gene flow. Divergent larval ecological adaptations, resulting in Genotype-by-Environment (G × E) interactions, have been proposed as important drivers of speciation in these species. In West Africa, An. coluzzii tends to be associated with permanent man-made larval habitats such as irrigated rice fields, which are typically more eutrophic and mineral and ammonia-rich than the temporary rain pools exploited by An. gambiae (s.s.)

Influence of a Major Mountainous Landscape Barrier (Mount Cameroon) on the Spread of Metabolic (GSTe2) and Target-Site (Rdl) Resistance Alleles in the African Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus

December 16, 2020 - 12:52 -- Open Access
Amvongo-Adjia N, Riveron JM, Njiokou F, Wanji S, Wondji CS
Genes (Basel). 2020 Dec 11;11(12):E1492

Increased levels of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus threaten the effectiveness of insecticide-based control programmes. Understanding the landscape features impacting the spread of resistance makers is necessary to design suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we examined the influence of the highest mountain in West Africa (Mount Cameroon; 4095 m elevation) on the spread of metabolic and target-site resistance alleles in An. funestus populations.

The Gini coefficient as a useful measure of malaria inequality among populations

December 3, 2020 - 12:38 -- Open Access
Jonathan Abeles and David J. Conway
Malaria Journal 2020 19:444, 2 December 2020

Understanding inequality in infectious disease burden requires clear and unbiased indicators. The Gini coefficient, conventionally used as a macroeconomic descriptor of inequality, is potentially useful to quantify epidemiological heterogeneity. With a potential range from 0 (all populations equal) to 1 (populations having maximal differences), this coefficient is used here to show the extent and persistence of inequality of malaria infection burden at a wide variety of population levels.

NOT Open Access | Short Persistence and Vector Susceptibility to Ficam 80WP (bendiocarb active ingredient) During Pilot Application of Indoor Residual Spraying in Burkina Faso, West Africa

November 10, 2020 - 14:33 -- NOT Open Access
Hien AS, Soma DD, Somé FA, Namountougou M, Poda SB, Ouédraogo GA, Diabaté A, Dabiré RK
J Med Entomol. 2020 Nov 9:tjaa240

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) was applied in addition to the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the South West in Burkina Faso, where Anopheles gambiae s.l. the major malaria vector was resistant to pyrethroids. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and residual life of bendiocarb (active ingredient) used for spraying on different wall surfaces (mud and cement).

Updates on malaria epidemiology and profile in Cabo Verde from 2010 to 2019: the goal of elimination

October 27, 2020 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Adilson José DePina, Gillian Stresman, Helga Sofia Baptista Barros, António Lima Moreira, Abdoulaye Kane Dia, Ullardina Domingos Furtado, Ousmane Faye, Ibrahima Seck and El Hadji Amadou Niang
Malaria Journal 2020 19:380, 23 October 2020

Located in West Africa, Cabo Verde is an archipelago consisting of nine inhabited islands. Malaria has been endemic since the settlement of the islands during the sixteenth century and is poised to achieve malaria elimination in January 2021. The aim of this research is to characterize the trends in malaria cases from 2010 to 2019 in Cabo Verde as the country transitions from endemic transmission to elimination and prevention of reintroduction phases.

Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) is found where few are looking: assessing mosquito diversity and density outside inhabited areas using diverse sampling methods

October 21, 2020 - 08:14 -- Open Access
Epopa PS, Millogo AA, Collins CM, North AR, Benedict MQ, Tripet F, OʼLoughlin S, Dabiré RK, Ouédraogo GA, Diabaté A
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 15;13(1):516

One of the promising current approaches to curb malaria lies in genetic vector control, the implementation of which will require an improved understanding of the movement of genetic constructs among mosquito populations. To predict potential gene flow from one area to another, it is important to begin to understand mosquito dynamics outside of the commonly-sampled village areas, and thus how genes may move between villages. This study assessed the presence and relative abundance of mosquitoes in a 6-km corridor between two villages in western Burkina Faso.


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