Existing mechanisms of insecticide resistance are known to help the survival of mosquitoes following contact with chemical compounds, even though they could negatively affect the life-history traits of resistant malaria vectors. In West Africa, the knockdown resistance mechanism kdrR (L1014F) is the most common. However, little knowledge is available on its effects on mosquito life-history traits. The fitness effects associated with this knockdown resistance allele in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) were investigated in an insecticide-free laboratory environment.
Due to the lack of vaccines, malaria control mainly involves the control of anopheline vectors (Anopheles spp.) using chemical insecticides. However, the prolonged and indiscriminate use of these compounds has led to the emergence of resistance in Anopheles populations in Africa. Insecticide resistance surveillance programs are less frequent in Cabo Verde than in other African countries. This study aimed to investigate the circulation of the L1014F and L1014S alleles in natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis collected from two sampling sites in the city of Praia, Cabo Verde.
This study assessed the perception of pregnant women on indoor residual spraying (IRS), documented acceptability, and factors that significantly dictate willingness to use IRS among the pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ibadan Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from 500 pregnant women. Descriptive and principal component analysis (PCA) were done at 5% level of significance. Majority of the pregnant women had between good and fair knowledge of IRS. Less than 70% of the respondents were willing to allow IRS in their homes.
The selection and the spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors to the main classes of insecticides used in vector control tools are a major and ongoing challenge to malaria vector control programmes. This study aimed to determine the intensity of vector resistance to insecticides in three regions of Benin with different agro-ecological characteristics.
Here we report the first population genetic study to examine the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on Plasmodium falciparum in humans. This study was conducted in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission in Bongo District, Ghana. IRS was implemented during the dry season (November - May) in three consecutive years between 2013 and 2015 to reduce transmission and attempt to bottleneck the parasite population in humans towards lower diversity with greater linkage disequilibrium. The study was done against a background of widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets, typical for contemporary malaria control in West Africa.
Host responses to infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum vary among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. Here we reveal metabolic perturbations as a consequence of malaria infection in children and identify an immunosuppressive role of endogenous steroid production in the context of P. falciparum infection. We perform metabolomics on matched samples from children from two ethnic groups in West Africa, before and after infection with seasonal malaria.
Malaria is a major cause of suffering, disease, and death worldwide and is considered the most important of all human parasitic diseases. Malaria is still endemic in most tropical and sub-tropical areas and globalization has contributed to an increase of imported cases around the world. We report a Plasmodium ovale infection in a traveler with recent return from a long land trip across West Africa.
Insecticide-based vector control is responsible for reducing malaria mortality and morbidity. Its success depends on a better knowledge of the vector, its distribution, and resistance status to the insecticides used. In this paper, we assessed Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (A gambiae s.l.) population resistance to pyrethroids in different ecological settings.
Application methods of |Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) need to be improved for wide-scale use, and effects on non-target organisms (NTOs) must be assessed. The goals of this study were to determine, at the village level, the effect of different configurations of bait stations to (1) achieve < 25% Anopheles mosquito vector daily feeding rate for both males and females and (2) minimize the effect on non-target organisms.
Population suppression gene drive has been proposed as a strategy for malaria vector control. A CRISPR-Cas9-based transgene homing at the doublesex locus (dsxFCRISPRh) has recently been shown to increase rapidly in frequency in, and suppress, caged laboratory populations of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Here, problem formulation, an initial step in environmental risk assessment (ERA), was performed for simulated field releases of the dsxFCRISPRh transgene in West Africa.