Individuals that work and sleep in remote forest and farm locations in the Greater Mekong Subregion continue to remain at high risk of both acquiring and transmitting malaria. These difficult-to-access population groups largely fall outside the reach of traditional village-centered interventions, presenting operational challenges for malaria programs. In Vietnam, over 60% of malaria cases are thought to be individuals who sleep in forests or on farms. New malaria elimination strategies are needed in countries where mobile and migrant workers frequently sleep outside of their homes. The aim of this study was to apply targeted surveillance-response based investigative approaches to gather location-specific data on confirmed malaria cases, with an objective to identify associated malaria prevention, treatment and risk behaviors of individuals sleeping in remote forest and farms sites in Vietnam.
Greater Mekong Subregion
The mortality caused by Plasmodium falciparum was reduced by Artemisinin (ART) and ART combination therapy (ACT). However, Artemisinin resistance (ART-R) emerge during 2008 in Cambodia and spread to Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS).
Deletion of the pfhrp2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum can lead to false-negative rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results, constituting a major challenge for evidence-based malaria treatment. Here we analyzed the whole genome sequences of 138 P. falciparum clinical samples collected from the China-Myanmar boarder for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions.
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are a significant and growing threat to the health of the 326 million people living in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) (Fig 1). The GMS is a diverse landscape of cities, rural agricultural communities, forests, deltas, wooded hills, and mountains in the six countries along the Mekong River basin.
The Greater Mekong subregion is a recurrent source of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This study aimed to characterise the extent and spread of resistance across this entire region between 2007 and 2018.
Deletion of the pfhrp2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum can lead to false negative RDT results, constituting a major challenge for evidence-based malaria treatment. Here we analyzed the whole genome sequences of 138 P. falciparum clinical samples collected from the China-Myanmar boarder for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions. We found pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions in 9.4% and 3.6% samples, respectively, with no samples harboring deletions of both genes.
Antigens expressed in sexual stages of the malaria parasites are targets of transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). HAP2/GCS1, a TBV candidate, is critical for fertilization in Plasmodium. Here, the genetic diversity of PvHAP2 was studied in Plasmodium vivax parasite populations from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS).
Sample size calculations for cluster randomized trials are a recognized methodological challenge for malaria research in pre-elimination settings. Positively correlated responses from the participants in the same cluster are a key feature in the estimated sample size required for a cluster randomized trial. The degree of correlation is measured by the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) where a higher coefficient suggests a closer correlation hence less heterogeneity within clusters but more heterogeneity between clusters.