Plasmodium invasion of mosquito midguts is a mandatory step for malaria transmission. The roles of mosquito midgut proteins and parasite interaction during malaria transmission are not clear. This study aims to identify mosquito midgut proteins that interact with and affect P. falciparum invasion. Based on gene expression profiles and protein sequences, 76 mosquito secretory proteins that are highly expressed in midguts and up-regulated by blood meals were chosen for analysis. About 61 candidate genes were successfully cloned from Anopheles gambiae and expressed in insect cells.
Eradication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria will likely require a multivalent vaccine, but the development of a highly efficacious subunit-based formulation has been challenging. We previously showed that production and immunogenicity of two leading vaccine targets, PfMSP119 (blood-stage) and Pfs25 (sexual stage), could be enhanced upon genetic fusion to merozoite surface protein 8 (PfMSP8). Here, we sought to optimize a Pfs25-based formulation for use in combination with rPfMSP1/8 with the goal of maintaining the immunogenicity of each subunit.
The efficient spread of malaria from infected humans to mosquitoes is a major challenge for malaria elimination initiatives. Gametocytes are the only Plasmodium life stage infectious to mosquitoes. Here, we summarize evidence for naturally acquired anti‐gametocyte immunity and the current state of transmission blocking vaccines (TBV). Although gametocytes are intra‐erythrocytic when present in infected humans, developing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes may express proteins on the surface of red blood cells that elicit immune responses in naturally exposed individuals.