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sexual stage

Analysis of blood-induced Anopheles gambiae midgut proteins and sexual stage Plasmodium falciparum interaction reveals mosquito genes important for malaria transmission

September 2, 2020 - 08:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cui Y, Niu G, Li VL, Wang X, Li J
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 31;10(1):14316

Plasmodium invasion of mosquito midguts is a mandatory step for malaria transmission. The roles of mosquito midgut proteins and parasite interaction during malaria transmission are not clear. This study aims to identify mosquito midgut proteins that interact with and affect P. falciparum invasion. Based on gene expression profiles and protein sequences, 76 mosquito secretory proteins that are highly expressed in midguts and up-regulated by blood meals were chosen for analysis. About 61 candidate genes were successfully cloned from Anopheles gambiae and expressed in insect cells.

Maintaining immunogenicity of blood stage and sexual stage subunit malaria vaccines when formulated in combination

May 4, 2020 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Parzych EM, Miura K, Long CA, Burns JM Jr
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(4): e0232355

Eradication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria will likely require a multivalent vaccine, but the development of a highly efficacious subunit-based formulation has been challenging. We previously showed that production and immunogenicity of two leading vaccine targets, PfMSP119 (blood-stage) and Pfs25 (sexual stage), could be enhanced upon genetic fusion to merozoite surface protein 8 (PfMSP8). Here, we sought to optimize a Pfs25-based formulation for use in combination with rPfMSP1/8 with the goal of maintaining the immunogenicity of each subunit.

Immunity against sexual stage Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites

December 23, 2019 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Jong RM, Tebeje SK, Meerstein-Kessel L, Tadesse FG, Jore MM, Stone W, Bousema T
Reference: 
Immunol Rev. 2019 Dec 16.

The efficient spread of malaria from infected humans to mosquitoes is a major challenge for malaria elimination initiatives. Gametocytes are the only Plasmodium life stage infectious to mosquitoes. Here, we summarize evidence for naturally acquired anti‐gametocyte immunity and the current state of transmission blocking vaccines (TBV). Although gametocytes are intra‐erythrocytic when present in infected humans, developing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes may express proteins on the surface of red blood cells that elicit immune responses in naturally exposed individuals.

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