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Uganda

Generation of a malaria negative Ugandan birth weight standard for the diagnosis of small for gestational age

October 6, 2020 - 12:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zakama AK, Weekes T, Kajubi R, Kakuru A, Ategeka J, Kamya M, Muhindo MK, Havlir D, Jagannathan P, Dorsey G, Gaw SL
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 2;15(10):e0240157

Placental malaria is a known risk factor for small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. However, currently utilized international and African birthweight standards have not controlled for placental malaria and/or lack obstetrical ultrasound dating. We developed a neonatal birthweight standard based on obstetrically dated pregnancies that excluded individuals with clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia, and placental malaria infection. We hypothesized that current curves underestimate true ideal birthweight and the prevalence of SGA.

Methods to estimate baseline creatinine and define acute kidney injury in lean Ugandan children with severe malaria: a prospective cohort study

October 1, 2020 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Batte A, Starr MC, Schwaderer AL, Opoka RO, Namazzi R, Phelps Nishiguchi ES, Ssenkusu JM, John CC, Conroy AL
Reference: 
BMC Nephrol. 2020 Sep 29;21(1):417

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a consequential clinical complication in children with severe malaria. However, approaches to estimate baseline creatinine (bSCr) are not standardized in this unique patient population. Prior to wide-spread utilization, bSCr estimation methods need to be evaluated in many populations, particularly in children from low-income countries.

Individual, community and region level predictors of insecticide-treated net use among women in Uganda: a multilevel analysis

September 16, 2020 - 12:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Yusuf Olushola Kareem and Sanni Yaya
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:337, 16 September 2020

Use of insecticide-treated net (ITN) has been identified by the World Health Organization as an effective approach for malaria prevention. The government of Uganda has instituted measures to enhance ITN supply over the past decade, however, the country ranks third towards the global malaria burden. As a result, this study investigated how individual, community and region level factors affect ITN use among women of reproductive age in Uganda.

Evaluating the performance of malaria genetics for inferring changes in transmission intensity using transmission modelling

September 10, 2020 - 08:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Watson OJ, Okell LC, Verity R, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Biol Evol. 2020 Sep 8:msaa225

Substantial progress has been made globally to control malaria, however there is a growing need for innovative new tools to ensure continued progress. One approach is to harness genetic sequencing and accompanying methodological approaches as have been used in the control of other infectious diseases. However, to utilise these methodologies for malaria we first need to extend the methods to capture the complex interactions between parasites, human and vector hosts, and environment, which all impact the level of genetic diversity and relatedness of malaria parasites.

Molecular surveillance reveals the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations in Uganda, 2017–2019

August 27, 2020 - 08:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agaba B. Bosco, Karen Anderson, Karryn Gresty, et al
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:300, 26 August 2020

Histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the only RDTs recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. However, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 and 3 (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) gene deletions threatens their usefulness as malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions surveillance was conducted in P. falciparum parasite populations in Uganda.

NOT Open Access | Malaria Diagnosed in an Urban Setting Strongly Associated with Recent Overnight Travel: A Case-Control Study from Kampala, Uganda

August 27, 2020 - 08:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Arinaitwe E, Mpimbaza A, Nankabirwa JI, Kamya V, Asiimwe A, Kuule JK, Kamya MR, Drakeley C, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Staedke SG
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 24

Malaria is frequently diagnosed in urban Kampala, despite low transmission intensity. To evaluate the association between recent travel out of Kampala and malaria, we conducted a matched case-control study. Cases were febrile outpatients with a positive malaria test; controls were febrile outpatients with a negative test. For every two cases, five controls were selected, matching on age.

Gravidity-dependent associations between interferon response and birth weight in placental malaria

August 10, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Natalie M. Quanquin, Lauren G. Barres, Stephanie L. Gaw, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:280, 5 August 2020

Maternal malarial infection leads to poor perinatal outcomes, including low birth weight from preterm delivery and/or fetal growth restriction, particularly in primigravidas. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells cause an inflammatory response that can interfere with maternal–fetal exchange, leading to poor growth. The type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway plays an immunomodulatory role in viral and bacterial infections, usually by suppressing inflammatory responses. However, its role in placental malaria is unknown. This study examines the cytokine responses in placental tissue from subsets of malaria-infected and uninfected women, and attempts to correlate them with particular birth outcomes.

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a complication of asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa based on published literature and primary data from Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya

July 28, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lawrence S. Redmond, Martin D. Ogwang, Sam M. Mbulaiteye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:239, 28 July 2020

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed.

NOT Open Access | Malaria Transmission, Infection, and Disease following Sustained Indoor Residual Spraying of Insecticide in Tororo, Uganda

July 27, 2020 - 12:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Dorsey G, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 20

Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS.

High insecticide resistances levels in Anopheles gambiaes s.l. in northern Uganda and its relevance for future malaria control

July 26, 2020 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Echodu R, Iga J, Oyet WS, Mireji P, Anena J, Onanyang D, Iwiru T, Lutwama JJ, Opiyo EA
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Jul 22;13(1):348

The aim of the study was to determine the level of insecticide resistance and diversity in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Uganda. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assays were used to test for susceptibility to 0.5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.75% permethrin on 3–5 day old generation one progeny. We also screened for species diversity and knockdown resistance using PCR assay.

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