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Uganda

Non-adherence to long-lasting insecticide treated bednet use following successful malaria control in Tororo, Uganda

December 8, 2020 - 10:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rek J, Musiime A, Zedi M, Otto G, Kyagamba P, Asiimwe Rwatooro J, Arinaitwe E, Nankabirwa J, Staedke SG, Drakeley C, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Krezanoski PJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 3;15(12):e0243303

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) are common tools for reducing malaria transmission. We studied a cohort in Uganda with universal access to LLINs after 5 years of sustained IRS to explore LLIN adherence when malaria transmission has been greatly reduced. Eighty households and 526 individuals in Nagongera, Uganda were followed from October 2017 -October 2019. Every two weeks, mosquitoes were collected from sleeping rooms and LLIN adherence the prior night assessed. Episodes of malaria were diagnosed using passive surveillance.

Estimating malaria incidence from routine health facility-based surveillance data in Uganda

December 3, 2020 - 12:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adrienne Epstein, Jane Frances Namuganga, Emmanuel Victor Kamya, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Samir Bhatt, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Sarah G. Staedke, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey and Bryan Greenhouse
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:445, 2 December 2020

Accurate measures of malaria incidence are essential to track progress and target high-risk populations. While health management information system (HMIS) data provide counts of malaria cases, quantifying the denominator for incidence using these data is challenging because catchment areas and care-seeking behaviours are not well defined. This study’s aim was to estimate malaria incidence using HMIS data by adjusting the population denominator accounting for travel time to the health facility.

Haptoglobin gene diversity and incidence of uncomplicated malaria among children in Iganga, Uganda

November 28, 2020 - 16:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Catherine N. Lwanira, Fred Kironde and Göte Swedberg
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:435, 26 November 2020

Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase protein that takes part in systemic regulation of haem during Plasmodium falciparum infections. Numerous genotypes of haptoglobin have been reported in malaria endemic populations. In this study, the relationship between haptoglobin genotypes and incidence of uncomplicated malaria in a cohort of children living in a malaria-endemic area of Uganda was determined.

Changing malaria fever test positivity among paediatric admissions to Tororo district hospital, Uganda 2012–2019

November 24, 2020 - 13:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arthur Mpimbaza, Asadu Sserwanga, Damian Rutazaana, James Kapisi, Richard Walemwa, Laurissa Suiyanka, David Kyalo, Moses Kamya, Jimmy Opigo and Robert W. Snow
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:416, 19 November 2020

The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) for malaria control in endemic countries. However, long-term impact data of vector control interventions is rarely measured empirically.

Relationship between blood Lead status and anemia in Ugandan children with malaria infection

November 18, 2020 - 11:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mukisa A, Kasozi D, Aguttu C, Vuzi PC, Kyambadde J
Reference: 
BMC Pediatr. 2020 Nov 14;20(1):521

In Uganda, childhood anemia remains a health challenge and is associated with malaria infection as well as iron deficiency. Iron deficiency is intertwined with nutritional status, age and other comorbidities including helminths and Lead toxicity. Environmental Lead levels accounts for one’s blood Lead (BL) levels. Blood Lead competitively blocks iron absorption, inhibits hemoglobin (Hb) biosynthesis and elevates free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels. Lead toxicity’s contribution towards anemia pathogenesis, especially during malaria infection has not been studied. Concomitant exposure to both malaria infection and Lead pollution, exacerbates the anemia status. This study therefore aimed at expounding the anemia status of these Ugandan children aged under 5years who are exposed to both malaria infection and environmental Lead pollution.

Association between recent overnight travel and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets in rural Uganda: a prospective cohort study in Tororo

November 12, 2020 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Paul Krezanoski, John Rek, Victor Kamya, Adrienne Epstein, Philip J. Rosenthal, Chris Drakeley, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey and Sarah G. Staedke
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:405, 11 November 2020

The burden of malaria in Uganda remains high, but has become increasingly heterogenous following intensified malaria control. Travel within Uganda is recognized as a risk factor for malaria, but behaviours associated with travel are not well-understood. To address this knowledge gap, malaria-relevant behaviours of cohort participants were assessed during travel and at home in Uganda.

Increased malaria parasitaemia among adults living with HIV who have discontinued cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Kitgum district, Uganda

November 12, 2020 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Orishaba P, Kalyango JN, Nankabirwa JI, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 11;15(11):e0240838

Although WHO recommends cotrimoxazole (CTX) discontinuation among HIV patients who have undergone immune recovery and are living in areas of low prevalence of malaria, some countries including Uganda recommend CTX discontinuation despite having a high malaria burden. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with malaria parasitaemia among adults living with HIV attending hospital outpatient clinic before and after discontinuation of CTX prophylaxis.

NOT Open Access | Retinopathy-Positive Cerebral Malaria Is Associated With Greater Inflammation, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown, and Neuronal Damage Than Retinopathy-Negative Cerebral Malaria

November 11, 2020 - 14:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Villaverde C, Namazzi R, Shabani E, Park GS, Datta D, Hanisch B, Opoka RO, John CC
Reference: 
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Nov 10;9(5):580-586

Our prior study findings suggest that Plasmodium falciparum is the cause of disease in both malaria retinopathy-positive (RP) and most retinopathy-negative (RN) cerebral malaria (CM), and that absence of retinopathy and decreased disease severity in RN CM may be due to shorter duration of illness, lower parasite biomass, and decreased var gene expression in RN compared to RP CM. In the present study, we assessed the pathophysiology of RP and RN CM.

A differential expression of pyrethroid resistance genes in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus across Uganda is associated with patterns of gene flow

November 11, 2020 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sandeu MM, Mulamba C, Weedall GD, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 10;15(11):e0240743

Insecticide resistance is challenging the effectiveness of insecticide-based control interventions to reduce malaria burden in Africa. Understanding the molecular basis of insecticides resistance and patterns of gene flow in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus are important steps for designing effective resistance management strategies. Here, we investigated the association between patterns of genetic structure and expression profiles of genes involved in the pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus across Uganda and neighboring Kenya.

NOT Open Access | Inhibitory KIR ligands are associated with higher P. falciparum parasite prevalence

November 10, 2020 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Digitale JC, Callaway PC, Feeney ME, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 9:jiaa698

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their HLA ligands influence the outcome of many infectious diseases. We analyzed the relationship of compound KIR-HLA genotypes with risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a longitudinal cohort of 890 Ugandan individuals. We found that presence of HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4, ligands for inhibitory KIR2DL1 and KIR3DL1, respectively, increased the likelihood of P. falciparum parasitemia in an additive manner.

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