Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed.
Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS.
The aim of the study was to determine the level of insecticide resistance and diversity in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Uganda. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assays were used to test for susceptibility to 0.5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.75% permethrin on 3–5 day old generation one progeny. We also screened for species diversity and knockdown resistance using PCR assay.
Mutations that mediate resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to aminoquinoline antimalarials are selected by prior drug use and may alter parasite fitness, but associations with clinical presentations are uncertain. We evaluated genotypes in samples from a case control study of determinants of severe malaria in Ugandan children 4 months to 10 years of age. We studied 274 cases with severe malaria matched by age and geography to 275 uncomplicated malaria controls and 179 asymptomatic parasitemic controls.
Understanding the relationship between malaria infection risk and disease outcomes represents a fundamental component of morbidity and mortality burden estimations. Contemporary data on severe malaria risks among populations of different parasite exposures are scarce. Using surveillance data, we compared rates of paediatric malaria hospitalisation in areas of varying parasite exposure levels.
The ultrasensitive Alere Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Ag histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic test (Alere uRDT) is a new diagnostic tool which is more expensive than other malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) routinely used in Ugandan clinics. The manufacturer recommends testing samples within 2 days and scoring results after 20 minutes, which may be impractical in high-volume resource-poor clinics.
Over the last two decades, there has been remarkable progress in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa, due mainly to the massive deployment of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Despite these gains, it is clear that in many situations, additional interventions are needed to further reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) approach through its Global Vector Control Response 2017–2030. However, prior roll-out of larval source management (LSM) as part of IVM, knowledge on ecology of larval aquatic habitats is required.
There is limited evidence on whether malaria elimination is feasible in high-transmission areas of Africa. Between 2007 and 2018, we measured the impact of malaria control interventions in young children enrolled in three clinical trials and two observational studies in Tororo, Uganda, a historically high-transmission area. Data were pooled from children aged 0.5–2 years.
Platelet counts are decreased in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is aetiologically linked with endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL). However, the pattern of platelet counts in eBL cases is unknown. We studied platelet counts in 582 eBL cases and 2 248 controls enrolled in a case‐control study in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya (2010–2016). Mean platelet counts in controls or eBL cases with or without malaria‐infection in controls versus eBLcases were compared using Student’s t‐test.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary malaria prevention tool, but their effectiveness is threatened by pyrethroid resistance. We embedded a pragmatic cluster-randomised trial into Uganda’s national LLIN campaign to compare conventional LLINs with those containing piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a synergist that can partially restore pyrethroid susceptibility in mosquito vectors.