Chloroquine (CQ) resistance is conferred by mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt). Following CQ withdrawal for anti-malarial treatment, studies across malaria-endemic countries have shown a range of responses. In some areas, CQ sensitive parasites re-emerge, and in others, mutant haplotypes persist. Active surveillance of resistance mutations in clinical parasites is essential to inform treatment regimens; this effort requires fast, reliable, and cost-effective methods that work on a variety of sample types with reagents accessible in malaria-endemic countries.
Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases in the world. The malaria burden is greatly affected by human immunity, and immune responses vary between populations. Genetic diversity in KIR and HLA-C genes, which are important in immunity to infectious diseases, is likely to play a role in this heterogeneity. Several studies have shown that KIR and HLA-C genes influence the immune response to viral infections, but few studies have examined the role of KIR and HLA-C in malaria infection, and these have used low-resolution genotyping. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in KIR and their HLA-C ligands differ in Ugandan populations with historically varied malaria transmission intensity using more comprehensive genotyping approaches.
Drivers of lower vaccine efficacy and impaired vaccine-specific immune responses in low-income versus high-income countries, and in rural compared with urban settings, are not fully elucidated. Repeated exposure to and immunomodulation by parasite infections may be important. We focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria, aiming to determine whether there are reversible effects of malaria infection on vaccine responses.
Evaluation of genetic relatedness of malaria parasites is a useful tool for understanding transmission patterns, but patterns are not easily detectable in areas with moderate to high malaria transmission. To evaluate the feasibility of detecting genetic relatedness in a moderate malaria transmission setting, relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum infections was measured in cohort participants from randomly selected households in the Kihihi sub-county of Uganda (annual entomological inoculation rate of 27 infectious bites per person).
In some areas of Uganda, village health workers (VHW) deliver Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) care, providing initial assessment of children under 5 years of age as well as protocol-based treatment of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea for eligible patients. Little is known about community perspectives on or satisfaction with iCCM care. This study examines usage of and satisfaction with iCCM care as well as potential associations between these outcomes and time required to travel to the household’s preferred health facility.
We enrolled 250 febrile children in western Uganda to compare the results of malaria rapid diagnostic tests when using capillary versus venous blood. Participants were tested with four different RDT types. PCR testing was performed as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity were broadly similar across RDT types and sampling method.
Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease with approximately half of the world's population at risk. Young children and pregnant women are hit hardest by the disease. B cells and antibodies are part of an adaptive immune response protecting individuals continuously exposed to the parasite. An infection with Plasmodium falciparum can cause dysregulation of B cell homeostasis, while antibodies are known to be key in controlling symptoms and parasitemia. BAFF is an instrumental cytokine for the development and maintenance of B cells.
Malaria surveillance is critical for monitoring changes in malaria morbidity over time. National Malaria Control Programmes often rely on surrogate measures of malaria incidence, including the test positivity rate (TPR) and total laboratory confirmed cases of malaria (TCM), to monitor trends in malaria morbidity. However, there are limited data on the accuracy of TPR and TCM for predicting temporal changes in malaria incidence, especially in high burden settings.
Elevated angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) concentrations are associated with worse overall neurocognitive function in severe malaria survivors, but the specific domains affected have not been elucidated.
Consistent use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) have been recommended as cost-effective interventions for malaria prevention during pregnancy in endemic areas. However, the coverage and utilization of these interventions during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is still suboptimal. This study aimed to determine the uptake of IPTp and ITNs and associated factors among women during their recent pregnancy in Eastern Uganda.