The circumsporozoite protein, CSP is the major surface protein of Plasmodium sporozoites, the form of malaria parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. CSP is involved in sporozoite formation within and egress from oocysts, entry into mosquito salivary glands and mammalian liver as well as migration in the skin. Yet, how CSP facilitates sporozoite formation, oocyst egress and hepatocyte specific invasion is still not fully understood.
A malaria vaccine that elicits long-lasting protection and is suitable for use in endemic areas remains urgently needed. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and prophylactic efficacy of a vaccine targeting a recently described epitope on the major surface antigen on Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, circumsporozoite protein (CSP). Using a virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine platform technology, we developed a vaccine that targets the junctional region between the N-terminal and central repeat regions of CSP. This region is recognized by monoclonal antibodies, including mAb CIS43, that have been shown to potently prevent liver invasion in animal models. We show that CIS43 VLPs elicit high-titer and long-lived anti-CSP antibody responses in mice and is immunogenic in non-human primates.
CIS43 is a potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets a highly conserved 'junctional' epitope in the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). Enhancing the durability of CIS43 in vivo will be important for clinical translation. Here, two approaches were used to improve the durability of CIS43 in vivo while maintaining potent neutralization.
Plasmodium sporozoites express circumsporozoite protein (CSP) on their surface, an essential protein that contains central repeating motifs. Antibodies targeting this region can neutralize infection, and the partial efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 - the leading malaria vaccine against P. falciparum (Pf) - has been associated with the humoral response against the repeats.
Extensive genetic diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) is a major contributing factor to the moderate efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine. The transmission intensity and rates of recombination within and between populations influence the extent of its genetic diversity. Understanding the extent and dynamics of PfCSP genetic diversity in different transmission settings will help to interpret the results of current RTS,S efficacy and Phase IV implementation trials conducted within and between populations in malaria-endemic areas such as Ghana.
Circumsporozoite surface protein (CSP) of malaria parasites has been recognized as one of the leading vaccine candidates. Clinical trials of vaccines for vivax malaria incorporating Plasmodium vivax CSP (PvCSP) have demonstrated their effectiveness in preventing malaria, at least in part. However, genetic diversity of pvcsp in the natural population remains a major concern.
Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) variants of P. vivax, besides having variations in the protein repetitive portion, can differ from each other in aspects such as geographical distribution, intensity of transmission, vectorial competence and immune response. Such aspects must be considered to P. vivax vaccine development. Therefore, we evaluated the immunogenicity of novel recombinant proteins corresponding to each of the three P. vivax allelic variants (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) and of the C-terminal region (shared by all PvCSP variants) in naturally malaria-exposed populations of Brazilian Amazon.
It is well established that infection by Plasmodium vivax is a result of host-parasite interactions. In the present study, association with the IL1/IL2 cytokine profiles, anticircumsporozoite protein antibody levels and parasitic loads was evaluated in individuals naturally infected with P. vivax in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon.
The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) builds up the surface coat of sporozoites and is the leading malaria pre-erythrocytic-stage vaccine candidate. CSP has been shown to induce robust CD8+ T cell responses that are capable of eliminating developing parasites in hepatocytes resulting in protective immunity. In this study, we characterised the importance of the immunodominant CSP-derived epitope, SYIPSAEKI, of Plasmodium berghei in both sporozoite- and vaccine-induced protection in murine infection models.
Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) is a potential malaria vaccine candidate, but various polymorphisms of the pfcsp gene among global P. falciparum population become the major barrier to the effectiveness of vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and natural selection of pfcsp in Bioko and the comparison among global P. falciparum population.