In non-endemic settings, transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is rare but potentially fatal and becoming more common with globalization.
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a severe monogenic disorder, caused by single nucleotide mutations in the hemoglobin (Hb) gene, that is prevalent in malaria endemic regions of the world. Sickle cell trait (SCT) individuals carry only one of the mutated alleles and were shown to be protected against malaria. However, defining the relative contribution of hematological, clinical, and environmental factors to the overall burden of malaria in individuals with hemoglobinopathies such as SCA has been challenging.
In Plasmodium falciparum infection, clinical conditions such as anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis are common. Mutation in haemoglobin sub-unit beta gene (HBB) may be a genetic factor responsible for these haematological changes during infection. However, the contributions of the carriage of different HBB genotypes on these changes remain largely unknown.
Young infants are protected against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Mechanisms driving this protection remain unclear due to a poor understanding of malaria clinical phenotypes during infancy.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disorder due to point mutation in the β-globin gene resulting in substitution of Valine for Glutamic acid. The SCD is prevalent in P. falciparum endemic regions such as western Kenya. Carriage of different sickle cell genotypes may influence haematological parameter during malaria. Children resident in malaria holoendemic regions suffer more from malaria-related complications and this is moderated by the presence of the SCD. In the current study, we determined the association between sickle cell genotypes and haematological parameters in children with P. falciparum malaria resident in Kisumu County in Western Kenya.
Alterations in the structure of haemoglobin (Hb) are usually brought about by point mutations affecting one or, in some cases, two codons encoding amino acids of the globin chains. One in three Ghanaians are said to have sickle cell disorders, whereas malaria continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality among children. This study determined the prevalence of sickle cell disorders and malaria infection among children aged 1–12 years in the Volta Region.
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited haemoglobinopathy, have increased risk of malaria, at least in part due to impaired splenic function. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum in SCD patients can trigger painful vaso-occlusive crisis, increase the severity of anaemia, and contribute to early childhood mortality.
Malaria is among the leading cause of infection in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) living in sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. However, after 2005 the standard treatment guidelines (STGs) on malaria chemoprevention for SCD patients were non-existent, and at present no medicine is recommended for SCD patients. Since several anti-malarials have been approved for the treatment of malaria in Tanzania, it is important to establish if there is a continued use of chemoprevention against malaria among SCD children.