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sub-Saharan Africa

NOT Open Access | Genetic Diversity of Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaria Transmission Foci in Southern and Central Africa

July 6, 2020 - 16:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ciubotariu II, Jones CM, Kobayashi T, Bobanga T, Muleba M, Pringle JC, Stevenson JC, Carpi G, Norris DE
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Jul 2:tjaa132

Despite ongoing malaria control efforts implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains an enormous public health concern. Current interventions such as indoor residual spraying with insecticides and use of insecticide-treated bed nets are aimed at targeting the key malaria vectors that are primarily endophagic and endophilic. Anopheles coustani s.l., an understudied vector of malaria, is a species previously thought to exhibit mostly zoophilic behavior.

Associations of malaria, HIV, and coinfection, with anemia in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study

June 30, 2020 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ssentongo P, Ba DM, Ssentongo AE, Ericson JE, Wang M, Liao D, Chinchilli VM
Reference: 
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jun 29; 20(1):379

Malaria and HIV are common infections in Africa and cause substantial morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. We aimed to assess the association of malaria with anemia in pregnant women and to explore the joint effects of malaria and HIV infection on anemia in pregnant women.

Caregiver and community perceptions and experiences participating in an infant malaria prevention trial of PfSPZ Vaccine administered by direct venous inoculation: a qualitative study in Siaya County, western Kenya

June 26, 2020 - 11:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Florence Achieng, Joseph G. Rosen, Reuben Yego Cherop, Simon Kariuki, Stephen L. Hoffman, Robert Seder, Martina Oneko and Laura C. Steinhardt
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:226, 24 June 2020

Despite available control strategies, malaria morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, remain intractable. Malaria vaccination could substantially reduce malaria episodes and deaths. One vaccine candidate is the whole sporozoite PfSPZ Vaccine, consisting of irradiated cryopreserved sporozoites administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI). DVI may be less acceptable than more familiar administration routes, particularly intramuscular. As part of a PfSPZ Vaccine trial among infants in western Kenya, a qualitative study was conducted to explore caregiver and community perceptions of the malaria vaccine trial, including the unique DVI administration procedure.

Identification and characterization of immature Anopheles and culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) at three sites of varying malaria transmission intensities in Uganda

June 26, 2020 - 11:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alex K. Musiime, David L. Smith, Steve W. Lindsay, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:221, 23 June 2020

Over the last two decades, there has been remarkable progress in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa, due mainly to the massive deployment of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Despite these gains, it is clear that in many situations, additional interventions are needed to further reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) approach through its Global Vector Control Response 2017–2030. However, prior roll-out of larval source management (LSM) as part of IVM, knowledge on ecology of larval aquatic habitats is required.

To screen or not to screen: an interactive framework for comparing costs of mass malaria treatment interventions

June 22, 2020 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Millar J, Toh KB, Valle D
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Jun 19; 18(1):149

Mass drug administration and mass-screen-and-treat interventions have been used to interrupt malaria transmission and reduce burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Determining which strategy will reduce costs is an important challenge for implementers; however, model-based simulations and field studies have yet to develop consensus guidelines. Moreover, there is often no way for decision-makers to directly interact with these data and/or models, incorporate local knowledge and expertise, and re-fit parameters to guide their specific goals.

Iron deficiency is associated with reduced levels of Plasmodium falciparum-specific antibodies in African children

June 9, 2020 - 11:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bundi CK, Nalwoga A, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 7:ciaa728

Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria are common causes of ill-health and disability among children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Although iron is critical for the acquisition of humoral immunity, little is known about the effects of ID on antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Aetiology of acute febrile illness in children in a high malaria transmission area in West Africa

June 9, 2020 - 11:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaboré B, Post A, de Mast Q, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Jun 4:S1198-743X(20)30306-2

Areas with declining malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa have recently witnessed important changes in the aetiology of childhood acute febrile illness (AFI). Here, we describe the aetiology of AFI in a high malaria transmission area in rural Burkina Faso.

Bacteremia in adults with severe malaria

June 8, 2020 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
White NJ
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 7:ciaa733

Symptomatic malaria is predominantly a disease of childhood in areas of higher transmission (i.e. much of sub-Saharan Africa). Most cases of severe malaria occur in children less than 5 years of age. In these regions both malaria and sepsis are major causes of childhood death, yet the clinical distinction between the two is difficult, particularly if there is no obvious focus of infection. Furthermore, severe malaria predisposes to bacterial infections, particularly with Salmonella sp, so a very sick child  may have both.

Molecular assessment of kelch13 non-synonymous mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Central African Republic (2017–2019)

May 25, 2020 - 08:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Romaric Nzoumbou-Boko, Chris-Boris Gildas Panté-Wockama, Didier Ménard, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:191, 24 May 2020

Over the last decade, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has contributed substantially to the decrease in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to artemisinin derivatives in Southeast Asia and the risk of their spread or of local emergence in sub-Saharan Africa are a major threat to public health. This study thus set out to estimate the proportion of P. falciparum isolates, with Pfkelch13 gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistance previously detected in Southeast Asia.

A systematic review of changing malaria disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000: comparing model predictions and empirical observations

May 4, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kamau A, Mogeni P, Okiro EA, Snow RW, Bejon P
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Apr 29;18(1):94

The most widely used measures of declining burden of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa are predictions from geospatial models. These models apply spatiotemporal autocorrelations and covariates to parasite prevalence data and then use a function of parasite prevalence to predict clinical malaria incidence. We attempted to assess whether trends in malaria cases, based on local surveillance, were similar to those captured by Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) incidence surfaces.

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