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sub-Saharan Africa

NOT Open Access | The Malaria-High Blood Pressure Hypothesis: Revisited

August 11, 2020 - 14:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nwokocha CR, Bafor EE, Ajayi OI, Ebeigbe AB
Reference: 
American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 33, Issue 8, August 2020, Pages 695–702

Malaria etiologies with pathophysiological similarities to hypertension currently constitute a major subject of research. The malaria-high blood pressure hypothesis is strongly supported by observations of the increasing incidence of hypertension in malaria-endemic, low- and middle-income countries with poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries. Malnutrition and low birth weight with persistent symptomatic malaria presentations in pregnancy correlate strongly with the development of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and subsequent hypertension in adult life.

Prevalence and associated factors of malaria among pregnant women in Sherkole district, Benishangul Gumuz regional state, West Ethiopia

August 10, 2020 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gontie GB, Wolde HF, Baraki AG
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 5;20(1):573

Malaria during pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on mothers and the fetus. Approximately 25 million pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa live at risk of malaria. This study would help to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by improving programs that deal with the prevention of malaria. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of malaria among pregnant women.

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a complication of asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa based on published literature and primary data from Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya

July 28, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lawrence S. Redmond, Martin D. Ogwang, Sam M. Mbulaiteye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:239, 28 July 2020

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed.

NOT Open Access | Interactions Between Antenatal Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, and Delivery Outcomes in Malawi

July 27, 2020 - 12:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor SM, Levitt B, Freedman B, Madanitsa M, Thwai KL, Kalilani-Phiri L, Khairallah C, Mwapasa V, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 23; 222(4):661-669

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The resistance marker dhps A581G has been associated with reduced IPTp-SP efficacy and enhanced morbidity in SP recipients.

NOT Open Access | ast and current biological factors affecting malaria in the low transmission setting of Botswana: A review

July 16, 2020 - 07:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bango ZA, Tawe L, Muthoga CW, Paganotti GM
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Jul 12:104458

Malaria continues to be one of the top infectious agents contributing to morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Annually, Botswana accounts only for a small proportion of cases (<<1%). Despite significantly reduced incidence rate, the country still experiences sporadic outbreaks that hamper the goal of malaria elimination. This review evaluated previous and current biological factors that impact malaria in Botswana, specifically focussing on the vectors, the parasite and the host. This was accomplished via a literature review evaluating these variables in Botswana.

What will studies of Fulani individuals naturally exposed to malaria teach us about protective immunity to malaria

July 14, 2020 - 09:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Troye-Blomberg M, Arama C, Quin J, Bujila I, Östlund Farrants AK
Reference: 
Scand J Immunol. 2020 Jul 11:e12932

There are an estimated over 200 million yearly cases of malaria worldwide. Despite concerted international effort to combat the disease, it still causes approximately half a million deaths every year, the majority of which are young children with Plasmodium falciparum infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Successes are largely attributed to malaria prevention strategies, such as insecticide treated mosquito nets and indoor spraying, as well as improved access to existing treatments.

Confirmation of the absence of local transmission and geographic assignment of imported falciparum malaria cases to China using microsatellite panel

July 14, 2020 - 09:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yaobao Liu, Sofonias K. Tessema, Bryan Greenhouse, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:244, 13 July 2020

Current methods to classify local and imported malaria infections depend primarily on patient travel history, which can have limited accuracy. Genotyping has been investigated as a complementary approach to track the spread of malaria and identify the origin of imported infections.

Evaluating interventions to improve test, treat, and track (T3) malaria strategy among over-the-counter medicine sellers (OTCMS) in some rural communities of Fanteakwa North district, Ghana: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

July 13, 2020 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Soniran OT, Abuaku B, Ahorlu CS
Reference: 
Trials. 2020 Jul 8;21(1):623

The World Health Organization initiated test, treat, and track (T3) malaria strategy to support malaria-endemic countries in their efforts to achieve universal coverage with diagnostic testing, antimalarial treatment, and strengthening surveillance systems. Unfortunately, T3 is not adopted by over-the-counter medicine sellers (OTCMS) where many patients with malaria-like symptoms first seek treatment. Sub-Saharan African countries are considering introducing and scaling up RDTs in these outlets to reduce malaria burden. In this context, this study is aimed at improving implementation of the T3 among OTCMS using a number of intervention tools that could be scaled-up easily at the national level.

Moving from Malaria Burden Reduction toward Elimination: An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia

July 7, 2020 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miller JM, Eisele TP, Fraser MS, Lewis MT, Slutsker L, Chizema Kawesha E
Reference: 
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2020, pp. 1–4

From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care.

NOT Open Access | Genetic Diversity of Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaria Transmission Foci in Southern and Central Africa

July 6, 2020 - 16:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ciubotariu II, Jones CM, Kobayashi T, Bobanga T, Muleba M, Pringle JC, Stevenson JC, Carpi G, Norris DE
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Jul 2:tjaa132

Despite ongoing malaria control efforts implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains an enormous public health concern. Current interventions such as indoor residual spraying with insecticides and use of insecticide-treated bed nets are aimed at targeting the key malaria vectors that are primarily endophagic and endophilic. Anopheles coustani s.l., an understudied vector of malaria, is a species previously thought to exhibit mostly zoophilic behavior.

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