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sub-Saharan Africa

Molecular assessment of kelch13 non-synonymous mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Central African Republic (2017–2019)

May 25, 2020 - 08:56 -- Open Access
Romaric Nzoumbou-Boko, Chris-Boris Gildas Panté-Wockama, Didier Ménard, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:191, 24 May 2020

Over the last decade, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has contributed substantially to the decrease in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to artemisinin derivatives in Southeast Asia and the risk of their spread or of local emergence in sub-Saharan Africa are a major threat to public health. This study thus set out to estimate the proportion of P. falciparum isolates, with Pfkelch13 gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistance previously detected in Southeast Asia.

A systematic review of changing malaria disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000: comparing model predictions and empirical observations

May 4, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Kamau A, Mogeni P, Okiro EA, Snow RW, Bejon P
BMC Med. 2020 Apr 29;18(1):94

The most widely used measures of declining burden of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa are predictions from geospatial models. These models apply spatiotemporal autocorrelations and covariates to parasite prevalence data and then use a function of parasite prevalence to predict clinical malaria incidence. We attempted to assess whether trends in malaria cases, based on local surveillance, were similar to those captured by Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) incidence surfaces.

Indoor residual spraying for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa 1997 to 2017: an adjusted retrospective analysis

April 13, 2020 - 15:24 -- Open Access
Julie-Anne A. Tangena, Chantal M. J. Hendriks, Catherine L. Moyes, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:150, 10 April 2020

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a key tool for controlling and eliminating malaria by targeting vectors. To support the development of effective intervention strategies it is important to understand the impact of vector control tools on malaria incidence and on the spread of insecticide resistance. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that countries should report on coverage and impact of IRS, yet IRS coverage data are still sparse and unspecific. Here, the subnational coverage of IRS across sub-Saharan Africa for the four main insecticide classes from 1997 to 2017 were estimated.

Housing and child health in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-sectional analysis

March 24, 2020 - 12:36 -- Open Access
Lucy S. Tusting, Peter W. Gething, Harry S. Gibson, Brian Greenwood, Jakob Knudsen, Steve W. Lindsay, Samir Bhatt
PLoS Med 17(3): e1003055

Housing is essential to human well-being but neglected in global health. Today, housing in Africa is rapidly improving alongside economic development, creating an urgent need to understand how these changes can benefit health. We hypothesised that improved housing is associated with better health in children living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of housing conditions relative to a range of child health outcomes in SSA.

Barriers to malaria prevention among immigrant travelers in the United States who visit friends and relatives in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-sectional, multi-setting survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices

March 18, 2020 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Volkman HR, Walz EJ, Stauffer WM, et al.
PLoS One. 2020 Mar 12;15(3):e0229565

Despite achievements in the reduction of malaria globally, imported malaria cases to the United States by returning international travelers continue to increase. Immigrants to the United States from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) who then travel back to their homelands to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) experience a disproportionate burden of malaria illness. Various studies have explored barriers to malaria prevention among VFRs and non-VFRs–travelers to the same destinations with other purpose for travel–but few employed robust epidemiologic study designs or performed comparative analyses of these two groups. To better quantify the key barriers that VFRs face to implement effective malaria prevention measures, we conducted a comprehensive community-based, cross-sectional, survey to identify differences in malaria prevention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among VFRs and others traveling to Africa and describe the differences between VFRs and other types of international travelers.

Costs of insecticide-treated bed net distribution systems in sub-Saharan Africa

March 9, 2020 - 14:09 -- Open Access
Sara S. Scates, Timothy P. Finn, Janna Wisniewski, David Dadi, Renata Mandike, Mwinyi Khamis, George Greer, Naomi Serbantez, Sylvester Segbaya, Prince Owusu, Jules Mihigo, Lilia Gerberg, Angela Acosta, Hannah Koenker and Joshua Yukich
Malaria Journal 2020 19:105, 4 March 2020

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the most cost-effective measures for preventing malaria. The World Health Organization recommends both large-scale mass distribution campaigns and continuous distributions (CD) as part of a multifaceted strategy to achieve and sustain universal access to ITNs. A combination of these strategies has been effective for scaling up ITN access. For policy makers to make informed decisions on how to efficiently implement CD or combined strategies, information on the costs and cost-effectiveness of these delivery systems is necessary, but relatively few published studies of the cost continuous distribution systems exist.

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

February 3, 2020 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Loick P. Kojom and Vineeta Singh
Malaria Journal 2020 19:46, 28 January 2020

In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India.

Safety and immunogenicity of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in infants and children identified as HIV-infected during a randomized trial in sub-Saharan Africa

January 24, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Otieno L, Guerra Mendoza Y, Oneko M, et al.
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 4, 22 January 2020, Pages 897-906

We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in a subset of children identified as HIV-infected during a large phase III randomized controlled trial conducted in seven sub-Saharan African countries.

Economic and Resource Use Associated With Management of Malaria in Children Aged <5 Years in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

January 14, 2020 - 16:39 -- Open Access
El-Houderi A, Constantin J, Castelnuovo E, Sauboin C
MDM Policy & Practice, 2019 Dec 21;4(2):2381468319893986.

Malaria is a major health, economic, and social burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective is to help understanding the economic impact of malaria and informing estimates of the potential economic impact of malaria prevention. To achieve this, we conducted a systematic review of published information on health system costs, health care resource use, and household costs for the management of malaria episodes in children aged <5 years in sub-Saharan Africa.

A Systematic Review of the Incremental Costs of Implementing a New Vaccine in the Expanded Program of Immunization in Sub-Saharan Africa

January 14, 2020 - 16:33 -- Open Access
Brew J, Sauboin C
MDM Policy & Practice, 2019 Dec 19; 4(2):2381468319894546

The World Health Organization is planning a pilot introduction of a new malaria vaccine in three sub-Saharan African countries. To inform considerations about including a new vaccine in the vaccination program of those and other countries, estimates from the scientific literature of the incremental costs of doing so are important


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