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sub-Saharan Africa

Evaluating interventions to improve test, treat, and track (T3) malaria strategy among over-the-counter medicine sellers (OTCMS) in some rural communities of Fanteakwa North district, Ghana: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

July 13, 2020 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Soniran OT, Abuaku B, Ahorlu CS
Reference: 
Trials. 2020 Jul 8;21(1):623

The World Health Organization initiated test, treat, and track (T3) malaria strategy to support malaria-endemic countries in their efforts to achieve universal coverage with diagnostic testing, antimalarial treatment, and strengthening surveillance systems. Unfortunately, T3 is not adopted by over-the-counter medicine sellers (OTCMS) where many patients with malaria-like symptoms first seek treatment. Sub-Saharan African countries are considering introducing and scaling up RDTs in these outlets to reduce malaria burden. In this context, this study is aimed at improving implementation of the T3 among OTCMS using a number of intervention tools that could be scaled-up easily at the national level.

Moving from Malaria Burden Reduction toward Elimination: An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia

July 7, 2020 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miller JM, Eisele TP, Fraser MS, Lewis MT, Slutsker L, Chizema Kawesha E
Reference: 
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2020, pp. 1–4

From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care.

NOT Open Access | Genetic Diversity of Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaria Transmission Foci in Southern and Central Africa

July 6, 2020 - 16:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ciubotariu II, Jones CM, Kobayashi T, Bobanga T, Muleba M, Pringle JC, Stevenson JC, Carpi G, Norris DE
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Jul 2:tjaa132

Despite ongoing malaria control efforts implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains an enormous public health concern. Current interventions such as indoor residual spraying with insecticides and use of insecticide-treated bed nets are aimed at targeting the key malaria vectors that are primarily endophagic and endophilic. Anopheles coustani s.l., an understudied vector of malaria, is a species previously thought to exhibit mostly zoophilic behavior.

Associations of malaria, HIV, and coinfection, with anemia in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study

June 30, 2020 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ssentongo P, Ba DM, Ssentongo AE, Ericson JE, Wang M, Liao D, Chinchilli VM
Reference: 
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jun 29; 20(1):379

Malaria and HIV are common infections in Africa and cause substantial morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. We aimed to assess the association of malaria with anemia in pregnant women and to explore the joint effects of malaria and HIV infection on anemia in pregnant women.

Caregiver and community perceptions and experiences participating in an infant malaria prevention trial of PfSPZ Vaccine administered by direct venous inoculation: a qualitative study in Siaya County, western Kenya

June 26, 2020 - 11:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Florence Achieng, Joseph G. Rosen, Reuben Yego Cherop, Simon Kariuki, Stephen L. Hoffman, Robert Seder, Martina Oneko and Laura C. Steinhardt
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:226, 24 June 2020

Despite available control strategies, malaria morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, remain intractable. Malaria vaccination could substantially reduce malaria episodes and deaths. One vaccine candidate is the whole sporozoite PfSPZ Vaccine, consisting of irradiated cryopreserved sporozoites administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI). DVI may be less acceptable than more familiar administration routes, particularly intramuscular. As part of a PfSPZ Vaccine trial among infants in western Kenya, a qualitative study was conducted to explore caregiver and community perceptions of the malaria vaccine trial, including the unique DVI administration procedure.

Identification and characterization of immature Anopheles and culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) at three sites of varying malaria transmission intensities in Uganda

June 26, 2020 - 11:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alex K. Musiime, David L. Smith, Steve W. Lindsay, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:221, 23 June 2020

Over the last two decades, there has been remarkable progress in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa, due mainly to the massive deployment of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Despite these gains, it is clear that in many situations, additional interventions are needed to further reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) approach through its Global Vector Control Response 2017–2030. However, prior roll-out of larval source management (LSM) as part of IVM, knowledge on ecology of larval aquatic habitats is required.

To screen or not to screen: an interactive framework for comparing costs of mass malaria treatment interventions

June 22, 2020 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Millar J, Toh KB, Valle D
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Jun 19; 18(1):149

Mass drug administration and mass-screen-and-treat interventions have been used to interrupt malaria transmission and reduce burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Determining which strategy will reduce costs is an important challenge for implementers; however, model-based simulations and field studies have yet to develop consensus guidelines. Moreover, there is often no way for decision-makers to directly interact with these data and/or models, incorporate local knowledge and expertise, and re-fit parameters to guide their specific goals.

Iron deficiency is associated with reduced levels of Plasmodium falciparum-specific antibodies in African children

June 9, 2020 - 11:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bundi CK, Nalwoga A, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 7:ciaa728

Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria are common causes of ill-health and disability among children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Although iron is critical for the acquisition of humoral immunity, little is known about the effects of ID on antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Aetiology of acute febrile illness in children in a high malaria transmission area in West Africa

June 9, 2020 - 11:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaboré B, Post A, de Mast Q, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Jun 4:S1198-743X(20)30306-2

Areas with declining malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa have recently witnessed important changes in the aetiology of childhood acute febrile illness (AFI). Here, we describe the aetiology of AFI in a high malaria transmission area in rural Burkina Faso.

Bacteremia in adults with severe malaria

June 8, 2020 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
White NJ
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 7:ciaa733

Symptomatic malaria is predominantly a disease of childhood in areas of higher transmission (i.e. much of sub-Saharan Africa). Most cases of severe malaria occur in children less than 5 years of age. In these regions both malaria and sepsis are major causes of childhood death, yet the clinical distinction between the two is difficult, particularly if there is no obvious focus of infection. Furthermore, severe malaria predisposes to bacterial infections, particularly with Salmonella sp, so a very sick child  may have both.

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