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sub-Saharan Africa

Attrition, physical integrity and insecticidal activity of long-lasting insecticidal nets in sub-Saharan Africa and modelling of their impact on vectorial capacity

September 1, 2020 - 09:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Olivier Briet, Hannah Koenker, Tom Smith, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:310, 28 August 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary malaria prevention and control intervention in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. While LLINs are expected to last at least 3 years under normal use conditions, they can lose effectiveness because they fall out of use, are discarded, repurposed, physically damaged, or lose insecticidal activity. The contributions of these different interrelated factors to durability of nets and their protection against malaria have been unclear.

Impact of Health Systems on the Implementation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Narrative Synthesis

August 27, 2020 - 08:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Olaleye AO, Walker O
Reference: 
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 22;5(3):E134

Malaria in pregnancy is a public health challenge with serious negative maternal and newborn consequences. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is recommended for the control of malaria during pregnancy within endemic areas, but coverage for the recommended ≥3 doses IPTp regimen has remained suboptimal. We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, and HINARI database from 1 January 2010 to 23 May 2020, for studies investigating the effect of the health system on IPTp implementation.

Modelling the suppression of a malaria vector using a CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive to reduce female fertility

August 13, 2020 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
North AR, Burt A, Godfray HCJ
Reference: 
BMC Biol. 2020 Aug 11;18(1):98

Gene drives based on CRISPR-Cas9 technology are increasingly being considered as tools for reducing the capacity of mosquito populations to transmit malaria, and one of the most promising options is driving endonuclease genes that reduce the fertility of female mosquitoes. In particular, there is much interest in constructs that target the conserved mosquito doublesex (dsx) gene such that the emergence of functional drive-resistant alleles is unlikely. Proof of principle that these constructs can lead to substantial population suppression has been obtained in population cages, and they are being evaluated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we use simulation modelling to understand the factors affecting the spread of this type of gene drive over a one million-square kilometre area of West Africa containing substantial environmental and social heterogeneity.

NOT Open Access | The Malaria-High Blood Pressure Hypothesis: Revisited

August 11, 2020 - 14:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nwokocha CR, Bafor EE, Ajayi OI, Ebeigbe AB
Reference: 
American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 33, Issue 8, August 2020, Pages 695–702

Malaria etiologies with pathophysiological similarities to hypertension currently constitute a major subject of research. The malaria-high blood pressure hypothesis is strongly supported by observations of the increasing incidence of hypertension in malaria-endemic, low- and middle-income countries with poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries. Malnutrition and low birth weight with persistent symptomatic malaria presentations in pregnancy correlate strongly with the development of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and subsequent hypertension in adult life.

Prevalence and associated factors of malaria among pregnant women in Sherkole district, Benishangul Gumuz regional state, West Ethiopia

August 10, 2020 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gontie GB, Wolde HF, Baraki AG
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 5;20(1):573

Malaria during pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on mothers and the fetus. Approximately 25 million pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa live at risk of malaria. This study would help to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by improving programs that deal with the prevention of malaria. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of malaria among pregnant women.

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a complication of asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa based on published literature and primary data from Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya

July 28, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lawrence S. Redmond, Martin D. Ogwang, Sam M. Mbulaiteye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:239, 28 July 2020

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed.

NOT Open Access | Interactions Between Antenatal Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, and Delivery Outcomes in Malawi

July 27, 2020 - 12:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor SM, Levitt B, Freedman B, Madanitsa M, Thwai KL, Kalilani-Phiri L, Khairallah C, Mwapasa V, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 23; 222(4):661-669

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The resistance marker dhps A581G has been associated with reduced IPTp-SP efficacy and enhanced morbidity in SP recipients.

NOT Open Access | ast and current biological factors affecting malaria in the low transmission setting of Botswana: A review

July 16, 2020 - 07:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bango ZA, Tawe L, Muthoga CW, Paganotti GM
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Jul 12:104458

Malaria continues to be one of the top infectious agents contributing to morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Annually, Botswana accounts only for a small proportion of cases (<<1%). Despite significantly reduced incidence rate, the country still experiences sporadic outbreaks that hamper the goal of malaria elimination. This review evaluated previous and current biological factors that impact malaria in Botswana, specifically focussing on the vectors, the parasite and the host. This was accomplished via a literature review evaluating these variables in Botswana.

What will studies of Fulani individuals naturally exposed to malaria teach us about protective immunity to malaria

July 14, 2020 - 09:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Troye-Blomberg M, Arama C, Quin J, Bujila I, Östlund Farrants AK
Reference: 
Scand J Immunol. 2020 Jul 11:e12932

There are an estimated over 200 million yearly cases of malaria worldwide. Despite concerted international effort to combat the disease, it still causes approximately half a million deaths every year, the majority of which are young children with Plasmodium falciparum infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Successes are largely attributed to malaria prevention strategies, such as insecticide treated mosquito nets and indoor spraying, as well as improved access to existing treatments.

Confirmation of the absence of local transmission and geographic assignment of imported falciparum malaria cases to China using microsatellite panel

July 14, 2020 - 09:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yaobao Liu, Sofonias K. Tessema, Bryan Greenhouse, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:244, 13 July 2020

Current methods to classify local and imported malaria infections depend primarily on patient travel history, which can have limited accuracy. Genotyping has been investigated as a complementary approach to track the spread of malaria and identify the origin of imported infections.

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