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sub-Saharan Africa

Ecological drivers of genetic connectivity for African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis

November 19, 2020 - 13:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hemming-Schroeder E, Zhong D, Machani M, Nguyen H, Thong S, Kahindi S, Mbogo C, Atieli H, Githeko A, Lehmann T, Kazura JW, Yan G
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 17;10(1):19946

Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis are major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of how geographical factors drive the dispersal and gene flow of malaria vectors can help in combatting insecticide resistance spread and planning new vector control interventions.

NOT Open Access | Update on malaria

November 19, 2020 - 12:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Varo R, Chaccour C, Bassat Q
Reference: 
Med Clin (Barc). 2020 Nov 13;155(9):395-402

Despite recent successful efforts to reduce the global malaria burden, this disease remains a significant global health problem. Only in 2018, malaria caused 228 million clinical episodes, 2-4 million of which were severe malaria cases, and 405,000 were fatal. Most of the malaria attributable mortality occurred among children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Molecular surveillance of antimalarial partner drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a spatial-temporal evidence mapping study

November 18, 2020 - 12:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hanna Y Ehrlich, Justin Jones, Sunil Parikh
Reference: 
Lancet Microbe. 2020 Sep;1(5):e209-e217.

Molecular markers for antimalarial drug resistance can be used to rapidly monitor the emergence and spatial distribution of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Little has been done to analyse molecular surveillance efforts or to assess surveillance coverage. This study aimed to develop an evidence map to characterise the spatial-temporal distribution and sampling methodologies of drug resistance surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically focusing on markers associated with ACT partner drugs.

Pharmacovigilance of suspected or confirmed therapeutic ineffectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy: extent, associated factors, challenges and solutions to reporting

November 4, 2020 - 10:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ronald Kiguba, Helen Byomire Ndagije, Victoria Nambasa, Leonard Manirakiza, Elijah Kirabira, Allan Serwanga, Sten Olsson, Niko Speybroeck and Jackson Mukonzo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:389, 3 November 2020

Therapeutic ineffectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) increases the risk of malaria-related morbidity and mortality, and raises healthcare costs. Yet, little has been done to promote the pharmacovigilance (PV) of ACT ineffectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Uganda. This study aimed to determine the extent and associated factors of the past 6 months reporting of suspected or confirmed ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness by healthcare professionals (HCPs), and difficulties and potential solutions to the PV of ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness.

Malaria and risk of lymphoid neoplasms and other cancer: a nationwide population-based cohort study

November 4, 2020 - 09:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wyss K, Granath F, Wångdahl A, Djärv T, Fored M, Naucler P, Färnert A
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Oct 30;18(1):296

Malaria is associated with Burkitt lymphoma among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. No longitudinal studies have assessed the long-term risk of other lymphoma or cancer overall. Here, we investigated the risk of lymphoid neoplasms and other cancer after malaria.

The effect of blood transfusion on outcomes among African children admitted to hospital with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a prospective, multicentre observational study

November 3, 2020 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ackerman H, Ayestaran A, Casals-Pascual C, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Haematol. 2020 Nov;7(11):e789-e797

Infection with Plasmodium falciparum leads to severe malaria and death in approximately 400 000 children each year in sub-Saharan Africa. Blood transfusion might benefit some patients with malaria but could potentially harm others. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between transfusion and death among children admitted to hospital with P falciparum malaria.

Spatiotemporal mapping of malaria prevalence in Madagascar using routine surveillance and health survey data

October 28, 2020 - 08:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arambepola R, Keddie SH, Cameron E, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 22;10(1):18129

Malaria transmission in Madagascar is highly heterogeneous, exhibiting spatial, seasonal and long-term trends. Previous efforts to map malaria risk in Madagascar used prevalence data from Malaria Indicator Surveys. These cross-sectional surveys, conducted during the high transmission season most recently in 2013 and 2016, provide nationally representative prevalence data but cover relatively short time frames.

Addressing challenges in routine health data reporting in Burkina Faso through Bayesian spatiotemporal prediction of weekly clinical malaria incidence

October 7, 2020 - 16:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rouamba T, Samadoulougou S, Kirakoya-Samadoulougou F
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 6;10(1):16568

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries' health systems are often vulnerable to unplanned situations that can hinder their effectiveness in terms of data completeness and disease control. For instance, in Burkina Faso following a workers' strike, comprehensive data on several diseases were unavailable for a long period in 2019. Weather, seasonal-malaria-chemoprevention (SMC), free healthcare, and other contextual data, which are purported to influence malarial disease, provide opportunities to fit models to describe the clinical malaria data and predict the disease spread.

Spatial and spatio-temporal methods for mapping malaria risk: a systematic review

October 7, 2020 - 15:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Odhiambo JN, Kalinda C, Macharia PM, Snow RW, Sartorius B
Reference: 
BMJ Glob Health. 2020 Oct;5(10):e002919

Approaches in malaria risk mapping continue to advance in scope with the advent of geostatistical techniques spanning both the spatial and temporal domains. A substantive review of the merits of the methods and covariates used to map malaria risk has not been undertaken. Therefore, this review aimed to systematically retrieve, summarise methods and examine covariates that have been used for mapping malaria risk in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Genome variation and population structure among 1142 mosquitoes of the African malaria vector species Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

October 7, 2020 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Consortium, Chris S Clarkson, Alistair Miles, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, et al.
Reference: 
Genome Res. 2020 Oct;30(10):1533-1546

Mosquito control remains a central pillar of efforts to reduce malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, insecticide resistance is entrenched in malaria vector populations, and countries with a high malaria burden face a daunting challenge to sustain malaria control with a limited set of surveillance and intervention tools.

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