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sub-Saharan Africa

NOT Open Access | Variation in Calculating and Reporting Antimalarial Efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of Published Reports

March 17, 2021 - 17:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Plucinski MM, Hastings IM, Moriarty LF, Venkatesan M, Felger I, Halsey ES
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 15:tpmd201481

Antimalarials, in particular artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), are critical tools in reducing the global burden of malaria, which is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Performing and reporting antimalarial efficacy studies in a transparent and standardized fashion permit comparison of efficacy outcomes across countries and time periods. This systematic review summarizes study compliance with WHO laboratory and reporting guidance pertaining to antimalarial therapeutic efficacy studies and evaluates how well studies from sub-Saharan Africa adhered to these guidelines.

Chromosome-level genome assemblies of the malaria vectors Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles arabiensis

March 17, 2021 - 16:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zamyatin A, Avdeyev P, Liang J, Sharma A, Chen C, Lukyanchikova V, Alexeev N, Tu Z, Alekseyev MA, Sharakhov IV
Reference: 
Gigascience. 2021 Mar 15;10(3):giab017

Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles arabiensis belong to the Anopheles gambiae complex and are among the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. However, chromosome-level reference genome assemblies are still lacking for these medically important mosquito species.

Survivorship of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in irrigated sugarcane plantation scheme in Ethiopia

March 10, 2021 - 13:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hawaria D, Kibret S, Demissew A, Tsegaye A, Bitew D, Yan G, Yewhalaw D
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Mar 6;14(1):142

To ensure food security, sub-Saharan Africa has initiated massive water resource development projects, such as irrigated agriculture, in recent years. However, such environmental modifications affect the survivorship and development of mosquitoes, which are vectors of different diseases. This study aimed at determining the effects of irrigation practices on development and survivorship of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Ethiopia.

NOT Open Access | Epidemiology of malaria among HIV/AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

March 2, 2021 - 15:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Obebe OO, Falohun OO
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Mar;215:105798

Malaria related HIV morbidity and death is a concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the epidemiology of malaria among people living with HIV is vital for adequate intervention. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of malaria in HIV patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched PubMed, AJOL, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases.

Averting malaria transmission with lethal house lure intervention

March 2, 2021 - 11:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chanda E
Reference: 
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):769-771

In 2019, malaria accounted for 229 million cases and 409 000 deaths globally, with 94% of the burden occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite determined efforts to combat malaria through definitive diagnoses, case management, and preventive interventions, the huge disease burden persists.

Geostatistical modeling of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Rwanda

February 25, 2021 - 10:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nzabakiriraho JD, Gayawan E
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Feb 17;21(1):369

Malaria has continued to be a life-threatening disease among under-five children in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent data indicate rising cases in Rwanda after some years of decline. We aimed at estimating the spatial variations in malaria prevalence at a continuous spatial scale and to quantify locations where the prevalence exceeds the thresholds of 5% and 10% across the country. We also consider the effects of some socioeconomic and climate variables.

Not Open Access | Dolutegravir pharmacokinetics during co-administration with either artemether/lumefantrine or artesunate/amodiaquine

February 9, 2021 - 10:05 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kawuma AN, Walimbwa SI, Pillai GC, Khoo S, Lamorde M, Wasmann RE, Denti P
Reference: 
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 Feb 7:dkab022

In sub-Saharan Africa, artemisinin-containing therapies for malaria treatment are regularly co-administered with ART. Currently, dolutegravir-based regimens are recommended as first-line therapy for HIV across most of Africa.

A population genomic unveiling of a new cryptic mosquito taxon within the malaria-transmitting Anopheles gambiae complex

February 4, 2021 - 10:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tennessen JA, Ingham VA, Toé KH, Guelbéogo WM, Sagnon N, Kuzma R, Ranson H, Neafsey DE
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2021 Feb;30(3):775-790

The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of multiple morphologically indistinguishable mosquito species including the most important vectors of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. Nine cryptic species have been described so far within the complex. The ecological, immunological and reproductive differences among these species will critically impact population responses to disease control strategies and environmental changes. Here, we examine whole-genome sequencing data from a longitudinal study of putative A. coluzzii in western Burkina Faso. Surprisingly, many specimens are genetically divergent from A. coluzzii and all other Anopheles species and represent a new taxon, here designated Anopheles TENGRELA (AT).

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium malariae, current knowledge and future research opportunities on a neglected malaria parasite species

February 3, 2021 - 14:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Oriero EC, Amenga-Etego L, Ishengoma DS, Amambua-Ngwa A
Reference: 
Crit Rev Microbiol. 2021 Jan 28:1-13

Plasmodium malariae is often reported as a benign malaria parasite. There are limited data on its biology and disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) possibly due to the unavailability of specific and affordable tools for routine diagnosis and large epidemiology studies. In addition, P. malariae occurs at low parasite densities and in co-infections with other species, predominately P. falciparum.

Predictive performance of rapid diagnostic tests for falciparum malaria and its modelled impact on integrated community case management of malaria in sub-Saharan African febrile children

January 31, 2021 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mischlinger J, Dudek V, Ramharter M
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 28:ciaa1942

Integrated community case management (iCCM) of malaria complements and extends the reach of public health services to improve access to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Such community-based programmes rely on standardised test-and-treat algorithms implemented by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, due to a changing epidemiology of fever causes, positive RDT results might not correctly reflect malaria-disease in all malaria-endemic settings in Africa. This study modelled diagnostic predictive values for all malaria-endemic African regions as an indicator of the programmatic usefulness of RDTs in iCCM campaigns on malaria.

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