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sub-Saharan Africa

The impact of large and small dams on malaria transmission in four basins in Africa

June 30, 2021 - 09:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kibret S, McCartney M, Lautze J, Nhamo L, Yan G
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 25;11(1):13355

Expansion of various types of water infrastructure is critical to water security in Africa. To date, analysis of adverse disease impacts has focused mainly on large dams. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of both small and large dams on malaria in four river basins in sub-Saharan Africa (i.e., the Limpopo, Omo-Turkana, Volta and Zambezi river basins).

Evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity of the antimalarial pyronaridine against Schistosoma

June 29, 2021 - 14:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Koehne E, Zander N, Rodi M, Held J, Hoffmann W, Zoleko-Manego R, Ramharter M, Mombo-Ngoma G, Kremsner PG, Kreidenweiss A
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jun 24;15(6):e0009511

Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Africa. Praziquantel is effective against adult schistosomes but leaves prepatent stages unaffected—which is a limit to patient management and elimination. Given the large-scale use of praziquantel, development of drug resistance by Schistosoma is feared. Antimalarials are promising drugs for alternative treatment strategies of Schistosoma infections. Development of drugs with activity against both malaria and schistosomiasis is particularly appealing as schistosome infections often occur concomitantly with malaria parasites in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, antiplasmodial compounds were progressively tested against Schistosoma in vitro, in mice, and in a clinical study.

NOT Open Access | Developmental stages influence in vivo antimalarial activity of aerial part extracts of Schkuhria pinnata

June 23, 2021 - 13:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nuwagira C, Peter EL, Ajayi CO, Adriko J, Grace KR, Olet EA, Ogwang PE, Tolo CU
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jun 15:114341

Malaria remains a dire health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, it is a most ordinary condition in hospital admission and outpatient care. The country's meager health services compel malaria patients to use herbal remedies such as Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell (Asteraceae). Although in vivo studies tested the antimalarial activity of S. pinnata extracts, plant developmental stages and their effect at different doses remain unknown.

Enhanced virulence of Plasmodium falciparum in blood of diabetic patients

June 22, 2021 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ch'ng JH, Moll K, Wyss K, Hammar U, Rydén M, Kämpe O, Färnert A, Wahlgren M
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jun 17;16(6):e0249666

Rising prevalence of diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa, coupled with continued malaria transmission, has resulted more patients dealing with both communicable and non-communicable diseases. We previously reported that travelers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) infected with Plasmodium falciparum were three times more likely to develop severe malaria than non-diabetics.

On the Efficiency of Machine Learning Models in Malaria Prediction

June 1, 2021 - 12:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mbaye O, Ba ML, Sy A
Reference: 
Stud Health Technol Inform. 2021 May 27;281:437-441

Malaria is still a real public health concern in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Senegal where it represents approximately 35% of the consultation activities in the hospitals. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate medical care support and often late and error-prone diagnosis of the disease. For instance, largely used tools like Rapid Diagnosis Test are not fully reliable.

NOT Open Access | In-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of phosphate buffer extract of Calotropis procera latex in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei

June 1, 2021 - 12:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Adejoh J, Inyang BA, Egua MO, Nwachukwu KC, Alli LA, Okoh MP
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 May 26:114237

Malaria is a global health problem with the greatest burden in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). The resistance to available antimalarial agents necessitate for the development of new and safe drugs for which medicinal plants provides credible alternative sources for discovering new and cheap therapeutic agents. Calotropis procera is used in several folk or traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases across different regions of the world. In Nigeria traditional medicine, C. procera latex is used either alone or in combination with other herbs to cure common diseases including malaria. In Malaka district (Indonesia), Calotropis gigantea (a member of Apocyanceae), is one of the most used herbs to treat malaria patient via the massage method.

Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in four sub-Saharan countries: findings from household surveys

May 18, 2021 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pons-Duran C, Llach M, Menéndez C, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 17;50(2):550-559

Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is a key malaria prevention strategy in areas with moderate to high transmission. As part of the TIPTOP (Transforming IPT for Optimal Pregnancy) project, baseline information about IPTp coverage was collected in eight districts from four sub-Saharan countries: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Mozambique and Nigeria.

HRP2 and HRP3 cross-reactivity and implications for HRP2-based RDT use in regions with Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 gene deletions

May 6, 2021 - 07:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amy Kong, Scott A. Wilson, Yong Ah, Douglas Nace, Eric Rogier and Michael Aidoo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:207, 29 April 2021

The Plasmodium falciparum antigen histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) is a preferred target for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) because of its abundant production by the parasite and thermal stability. As a result, a majority of RDTs procured globally target this antigen. However, previous reports from South America and recent reports from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia indicate that certain P. falciparum parasites have deletions of the gene coding for HRP2. The HRP2 antigen is paralogous to another P. falciparum antigen HRP3 and some antibodies to HRP2 cross-react with HRP3. Multiple parasites have been described with deletions of one or both hrp2 and hrp3 genes. It is unclear how the various combinations of hrp2 and hrp3 deletion genotypes affect clinical sensitivity of HRP2-based RDTs.

Factors associated with use of insecticide-treated net for malaria prevention in Manica District, Mozambique: a community-based cross-sectional survey

April 28, 2021 - 15:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Julia Scott, Mufaro Kanyangarara, Abel Nhama, Eusebio Macete, William John Moss and Francisco Saute
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:200, 27 April 2021

Insecticide-treated net (ITN) use is crucial for preventing malaria infection. Despite significant improvements in ITN access and use over the past two decades, many malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not yet reached global targets for universal coverage of ITNs. To reduce the gaps in ITN use, it is important to understand the factors associated with ITN use. The goal of this analysis was to determine the factors associated with ITN use in Manica District, Mozambique.

Baseline incidence of meningitis, malaria, mortality and other health outcomes in infants and young sub-Saharan African children prior to the introduction of the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine

April 28, 2021 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
The RTS,S Epidemiology EPI-MAL-002 Study Group
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:197, 26 April 2021

The lack of background disease incidence rates in sub-Saharan countries where the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine is being implemented may hamper the assessment of vaccine safety and effectiveness. This study aimed to document baseline incidence rates of meningitis, malaria, mortality, and other health outcomes prior to vaccine introduction through the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme.

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