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sub-Saharan Africa

Relative Burdens of the COVID-19, Malaria, Tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS Epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa

October 16, 2021 - 12:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bell D, Schultz Hansen K
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 11:tpmd210899

COVID-19 has had considerable global impact; however, in sub-Saharan Africa, it is one of several infectious disease priorities. Prioritization is normally guided by disease burden, but the highly age-dependent nature of COVID-19 and that of other infectious diseases make comparisons challenging unless considered through metrics that incorporate life-years lost and time lived with adverse health.

Characterizing the genomic variation and population dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in and around Lake Victoria, Kenya

October 13, 2021 - 12:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Osborne A, Manko E, Takeda M, Kaneko A, Kagaya W, Chan C, Ngara M, Kongere J, Kita K, Campino S, Kaneko O, Gitaka J, Clark TG
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 6;11(1):19809

Characterising the genomic variation and population dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in high transmission regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to the long-term efficacy of regional malaria elimination campaigns and eradication. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technologies can contribute towards understanding the epidemiology and structural variation landscape of P. falciparum populations, including those within the Lake Victoria basin, a region of intense transmission. Here we provide a baseline assessment of the genomic diversity of P. falciparum isolates in the Lake region of Kenya, which has sparse genetic data.

Not Open Access | Learnings from two independent malaria elimination demonstration projects in India

October 5, 2021 - 10:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rajvanshi H, Mishra K, Lal AA, et al.
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 25:trab148

India and sub-Saharan Africa contributes about 85% of the global malaria burden, and India is committed to eliminating malaria by 2030.

Care-seeking delay of imported malaria to China: Implications for improving post-travel healthcare for migrant workers

October 2, 2021 - 13:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lu G, Cao Y, Chen Q, Zhu G, Müller O, Cao J
Reference: 
J Travel Med. 2021 Sep 28:taab156

Imported malaria cases continue to pose major challenges in China as well as in other countries having achieved elimination. Our study aims to identify the factors influencing the timing of care-seeking after symptom onset among migrant workers with imported malaria, in order to develop innovative interventions to improve access and provision of post-travel healthcare for returning migrants.

NOT Open Access | Suppressive, curative, and prophylactic potentials of an antimalarial polyherbal mixture and its individual components in Plasmodium berghei-Infected mice

September 23, 2021 - 11:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Alaribe SC, Oladipupo AR, Uche GC, Onumba MU, Ota D, Awodele O, Oyibo WA
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Sep 15;277:114105

Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remains epidemiologically holoendemic. The absence of effective vaccines and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs have been the major challenges to malaria control measures. An alternative strategy could be the application of validated and standardized herbal formulations.

Urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: dynamic of the vectorial system and the entomological inoculation rate

September 8, 2021 - 17:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
P. Doumbe-Belisse, E. Kopya, C. S. Ngadjeu, N. Sonhafouo-Chiana, A. Talipouo, L. Djamouko-Djonkam, H. P. Awono-Ambene, C. S. Wondji, F. Njiokou and C. Antonio-Nkondjio
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:364, 8 September 2021

Sub-Saharan Africa is registering one of the highest urban population growth across the world. It is estimated that over 75% of the population in this region will be living in urban settings by 2050. However, it is not known how this rapid urbanization will affect vector populations and disease transmission. The present study summarizes findings from studies conducted in urban settings between the 1970s and 2020 to assess the effects of urbanization on the entomological inoculation rate pattern and anopheline species distribution.

Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Burkina Faso: a community-based cross-sectional survey

September 8, 2021 - 16:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jean Baptiste Yaro, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Amidou Diarra, Salif Sombié, Z. Amidou Ouedraogo, Issa Nébié, Chris Drakeley, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Alfred B. Tiono, Steven W. Lindsay and Anne L. Wilson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:362, 6 September 2021

Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying risk factors for malaria in pregnancy could assist in developing interventions to reduce the risk of malaria in Burkina Faso and other countries in the region.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

September 1, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lindsay SW, Thomas MB, Kleinschmidt I
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Sep;9(9):e1325-e1331

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

Effect of a single dose of oral azithromycin on malaria parasitaemia in children: a randomized controlled trial

September 1, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Boubacar Coulibaly, Ali Sié, Catherine E. Oldenburg, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:360, 31 August 2021

Azithromycin has recently been shown to reduce all-cause childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. One potential mechanism of this effect is via the anti-malarial effect of azithromycin, which may help treat or prevent malaria infection. This study evaluated short- and longer-term effects of azithromycin on malaria outcomes in children.

Not Open Access | Unanticipated CNS Safety Signal in a Placebo-controlled, Randomized Trial of Co-administered Atovaquone-Proguanil and Amodiaquine

September 1, 2021 - 15:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chalon S, Chughlay MF, Abla N, Tchouatieu AM, Haouala A, Hutter B, Lorch U, Macintyre F
Reference: 
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Aug 28

Atovaquone-proguanil (ATV-PG) plus amodiaquine (AQ) has been considered as a potential replacement for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus AQ for seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in African children. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ATV-PG plus AQ in healthy adult males and females of Black sub-Saharan African origin.

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