Advances in digitized video-tracking and behavioural analysis have enabled accurate recording and quantification of mosquito flight and host-seeking behaviours, facilitating development of individual (agent) based models at much finer spatial scales than previously possible.
Plasmodium falciparum causes the majority of malaria cases worldwide and children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most vulnerable group affected. Non-sterile clinical immunity that protects from symptoms develops slowly and is relatively short-lived. Moreover, current malaria vaccine candidates fail to induce durable high-level protection in endemic settings, possibly due to the immunomodulatory effects of the malaria parasite itself. Because dendritic cells play a crucial role in initiating immune responses, the aim of this study was to better understand the impact of cumulative malaria exposure as well as concurrent P. falciparum infection on dendritic cell phenotype and function.
In Mvoua, a village situated in a forested area of Cameroon, recent studies have reported high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among the population. In order to understand factors that can sustain such a high malaria transmission, we investigated the biology of Anopheles vectors and its susceptibility to insecticides, as well as long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage, use and bio-efficacy.
Malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa relies on the widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) or the indoor residual spraying of insecticide. Disease transmission may be maintained even when these indoor interventions are universally used as some mosquitoes will bite in the early morning and evening when people are outside. As countries seek to eliminate malaria, they can target outdoor biting using new vector control tools such as spatial repellent emanators, which emit airborne insecticide to form a protective area around the user.
In our analysis of 26 106 patients admitted to six hospitals in five sub-Saharan African countries, we found transfusion to be associated with decreased odds of death in site-adjusted and severity-adjusted analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0·50, 95% CI 0·42–0·60). This association could be subject to immortal time bias if many patients died before having an opportunity to receive transfusion—a concern that James Watson and colleagues have raised and that we explicitly stated as a possible limitation in our Article.
The protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe and prevailing form of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Previously, we identified the plasmodial lactate transporter, PfFNT, a member of the microbial formate-nitrite transporter family, as a novel antimalarial drug target. With the pentafluoro-3-hydroxy-pent-2-en-1-ones, we discovered PfFNT inhibitors that potently kill P. falciparum parasites in vitro.
This article explores how malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa is shaped in important ways by political and economic considerations within the contexts of aid-recipient nations and the global health community. Malaria control is often assumed to be a technically driven exercise: the remit of public health experts and epidemiologists who utilize available data to select the most effective package of activities given available resources.
HIV-infection, tuberculosis and malaria are the big three communicable diseases that plague sub-Saharan Africa. If these diseases occur as co-morbidities they require polypharmacy, which may lead to severe drug-drug-gene interactions and variation in adverse drug reactions, but also in treatment outcomes. Polymorphisms in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes are the major cause of these variations, but such polymorphisms may support the prediction of drug efficacy and toxicity. There is little information on allele frequencies of pharmacogenetic variants of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs used to treat HIV-infection, TB and malaria in the Republic of Congo (ROC). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the occurrence and allele frequencies of 32 pharmacogenetic variants localized in absorption distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and non-ADME genes and to compare the frequencies with population data of African and non-African derived from the 1000 Genomes Project.
Malaria incidence has plateaued in Sub-Saharan Africa despite Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention’s (SMC) introduction. Community health workers (CHW) use a door-to-door delivery strategy to treat children with SMC drugs, but for SMC to be as effective as in clinical trials, coverage must be high over successive seasons.
Malaria continues to impact on young lives, causing sickness, impaired school performance, disability, and preventable death, with little progress made to reduce the overall burden since 2014. In 2019, 274 000, or 67%, of all malaria deaths were in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO has recommended seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) for malaria control in areas across the Sahel sub-region since 2012.