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sub-Saharan Africa

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a complication of asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa based on published literature and primary data from Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya

July 28, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lawrence S. Redmond, Martin D. Ogwang, Sam M. Mbulaiteye, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:239, 28 July 2020

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed.

NOT Open Access | Interactions Between Antenatal Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, and Delivery Outcomes in Malawi

July 27, 2020 - 12:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor SM, Levitt B, Freedman B, Madanitsa M, Thwai KL, Kalilani-Phiri L, Khairallah C, Mwapasa V, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 23; 222(4):661-669

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The resistance marker dhps A581G has been associated with reduced IPTp-SP efficacy and enhanced morbidity in SP recipients.

NOT Open Access | ast and current biological factors affecting malaria in the low transmission setting of Botswana: A review

July 16, 2020 - 07:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bango ZA, Tawe L, Muthoga CW, Paganotti GM
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Jul 12:104458

Malaria continues to be one of the top infectious agents contributing to morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Annually, Botswana accounts only for a small proportion of cases (<<1%). Despite significantly reduced incidence rate, the country still experiences sporadic outbreaks that hamper the goal of malaria elimination. This review evaluated previous and current biological factors that impact malaria in Botswana, specifically focussing on the vectors, the parasite and the host. This was accomplished via a literature review evaluating these variables in Botswana.

What will studies of Fulani individuals naturally exposed to malaria teach us about protective immunity to malaria

July 14, 2020 - 09:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Troye-Blomberg M, Arama C, Quin J, Bujila I, Östlund Farrants AK
Reference: 
Scand J Immunol. 2020 Jul 11:e12932

There are an estimated over 200 million yearly cases of malaria worldwide. Despite concerted international effort to combat the disease, it still causes approximately half a million deaths every year, the majority of which are young children with Plasmodium falciparum infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Successes are largely attributed to malaria prevention strategies, such as insecticide treated mosquito nets and indoor spraying, as well as improved access to existing treatments.

Confirmation of the absence of local transmission and geographic assignment of imported falciparum malaria cases to China using microsatellite panel

July 14, 2020 - 09:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yaobao Liu, Sofonias K. Tessema, Bryan Greenhouse, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:244, 13 July 2020

Current methods to classify local and imported malaria infections depend primarily on patient travel history, which can have limited accuracy. Genotyping has been investigated as a complementary approach to track the spread of malaria and identify the origin of imported infections.

Evaluating interventions to improve test, treat, and track (T3) malaria strategy among over-the-counter medicine sellers (OTCMS) in some rural communities of Fanteakwa North district, Ghana: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

July 13, 2020 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Soniran OT, Abuaku B, Ahorlu CS
Reference: 
Trials. 2020 Jul 8;21(1):623

The World Health Organization initiated test, treat, and track (T3) malaria strategy to support malaria-endemic countries in their efforts to achieve universal coverage with diagnostic testing, antimalarial treatment, and strengthening surveillance systems. Unfortunately, T3 is not adopted by over-the-counter medicine sellers (OTCMS) where many patients with malaria-like symptoms first seek treatment. Sub-Saharan African countries are considering introducing and scaling up RDTs in these outlets to reduce malaria burden. In this context, this study is aimed at improving implementation of the T3 among OTCMS using a number of intervention tools that could be scaled-up easily at the national level.

Moving from Malaria Burden Reduction toward Elimination: An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia

July 7, 2020 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miller JM, Eisele TP, Fraser MS, Lewis MT, Slutsker L, Chizema Kawesha E
Reference: 
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2020, pp. 1–4

From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care.

NOT Open Access | Genetic Diversity of Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaria Transmission Foci in Southern and Central Africa

July 6, 2020 - 16:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ciubotariu II, Jones CM, Kobayashi T, Bobanga T, Muleba M, Pringle JC, Stevenson JC, Carpi G, Norris DE
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Jul 2:tjaa132

Despite ongoing malaria control efforts implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains an enormous public health concern. Current interventions such as indoor residual spraying with insecticides and use of insecticide-treated bed nets are aimed at targeting the key malaria vectors that are primarily endophagic and endophilic. Anopheles coustani s.l., an understudied vector of malaria, is a species previously thought to exhibit mostly zoophilic behavior.

Associations of malaria, HIV, and coinfection, with anemia in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study

June 30, 2020 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ssentongo P, Ba DM, Ssentongo AE, Ericson JE, Wang M, Liao D, Chinchilli VM
Reference: 
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jun 29; 20(1):379

Malaria and HIV are common infections in Africa and cause substantial morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. We aimed to assess the association of malaria with anemia in pregnant women and to explore the joint effects of malaria and HIV infection on anemia in pregnant women.

Caregiver and community perceptions and experiences participating in an infant malaria prevention trial of PfSPZ Vaccine administered by direct venous inoculation: a qualitative study in Siaya County, western Kenya

June 26, 2020 - 11:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Florence Achieng, Joseph G. Rosen, Reuben Yego Cherop, Simon Kariuki, Stephen L. Hoffman, Robert Seder, Martina Oneko and Laura C. Steinhardt
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:226, 24 June 2020

Despite available control strategies, malaria morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, remain intractable. Malaria vaccination could substantially reduce malaria episodes and deaths. One vaccine candidate is the whole sporozoite PfSPZ Vaccine, consisting of irradiated cryopreserved sporozoites administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI). DVI may be less acceptable than more familiar administration routes, particularly intramuscular. As part of a PfSPZ Vaccine trial among infants in western Kenya, a qualitative study was conducted to explore caregiver and community perceptions of the malaria vaccine trial, including the unique DVI administration procedure.

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