The results of these studies demonstrate an optimal method for sampling during surveillance and control programmes in rural villages of highlands and arid areas of Africa using inexpensive baits and boxes.
Where malaria transmission is concentrated around focal points, however, targeted IRS may pose a feasible alternative to mass spraying. Here, the impact of targeted IRS was assessed in the highlands of western Kenya.
Results from this study suggest that larval habitat management activities need to consider the dynamic nature of malaria vector habitats.
Land-use changes in the study area are favorable to An. gambiae larval development, thereby risking a more widespread distribution of malaria vector habitats and potentially increasing malaria transmission in western Kenya highlands.