There are limited data on gametocytaemia risk factors before/after treatment with artemisinin combination therapy in children from areas with transmission of multiple Plasmodium species.
Malaria remains common in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is frequently over-diagnosed and over-treated in hospitalized children.
The results demonstrate that there is delayed acquisition of P. falciparum-specific IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in HEU children on daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, which is evident at 6 and 12 months of age in comparison to HUU age-matched controls.
Malaria with anaemia and HIV exposure are significant risk factors for poor early childhood neurodevelopment in malaria-endemic areas in rural Africa.
The analysis of all malaria episodes (first and recurrent episodes) in the malaria cohort suggests different species-specific patterns of malaria disease in children, with mild seasonality in the incidence of P. vivax episodes mostly observed in younger age groups, and with marked seasonality in the incidence of P. falciparum episodes mainly seen in older children.
Four hundred twenty eight under-five children comprising 107 cases and 321 controls were included in this study. Prevalence of wasting was higher among cases (17.8 %) than the controls (9.3 %).
The results confirm an association between an increase in urbanicity and declining malaria risk and demonstrate that the acquisition of semi-immunity is heterogeneous on a micro-epidemiological scale and is associated with urbanicity.
Children below 5 years of age were more susceptible to malaria and anaemia.
These results confirm that severe malaria is associated with endothelial activation, and suggest that endothelial activation contributes to microvascular thrombosis and endothelial damage.
Increased parasite adhesion to ICAM-1 in children with evidence of intestinal ischaemia lends further evidence to a link between the cytoadherence of iRBCs in gut microvasculature and intestinal damage.