This paper presents estimates of P. falciparum infection prevalence in children under 5 years old in the context of a population-based household survey in Luangwa District (Lusaka Province), Zambia, an area where greater than 75% of households possess at least one insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN).
Malaria carries high case fatality among children with sickle cell anaemia. In Uganda, chloroquine is used for prophylaxis in these children despite unacceptably high levels of resistance. Intermittent presumptive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has shown great potential for reducing prevalence of malaria and anaemia among pregnant women and infants.
Presumptive treatment with SP was more efficacious than weekly chloroquine in reducing prevalence of malaria in children with sickle cell anaemia. Continued use of chloroquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis in children with sickle cell anaemia in Uganda does not seem to be justified. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCTOO124267