Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral malaria in South east Asia, the Pacific and South America, most of the severe and cerebral cases in Africa were attributed to P. falciparum. Cases of severe malaria due to P. vivax are emerging in Africa. A few severe P. vivax cases were reported in Eastern Sudan and they were underestimated due to the lack of accurate diagnosis, low parasitaemia and seldom use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).
The PfAMA1 showed a good safety profile. Most adverse events reported were of mild to moderate intensity.
The objectives of this study were to design a pharmacokinetic (PK) study by using information about adults and evaluate the robustness of the recommended design through a case study of mefloquine.
These results generally demonstrate that CSP and AMA1 peptides recalled ELISpot IFN-γ responses from naturally exposed individuals and that both CSP and AMA1 contain diverse class 1-restricted epitopes that are HLA-promiscuous and are widely recognized in this population.
The reduction in systemic exposure of all investigated drugs raises concerns of an increased risk of treatment failure rate in co-infected patients and should be further investigated.
HIV infected individuals in malaria endemic areas experience more frequent and severe malaria episodes compared to non HIV infected.
These results suggest natural malaria transmission induces CelTOS-specific ex vivo IFN-γ in Ghanaian adults and that the frequency of these responses was similar to those of other previously characterized malaria antigens.
Among adults with symptomatic uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa, the combination of AZ 1,000 mg and CQ 600-mg base once daily for three days resulted in Day-28 PCR-corrected parasitological clearance rates of >=98% and was non-inferior to treatment with MQ. AZCQ was well tolerated.
Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections.
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is auxotrophic for most amino acids.