LLINs continue to offer individual protection against malaria infection in an area of high resistance. Insecticide resistance is not a reason to stop efforts to increase coverage of LLINs in Africa.
The predominantly indoor human biting vectors recorded in this study could be targeted effectively with LLINs, indoor residual spraying and/or insecticide-treated window/door curtains reinforced by education to instil a perception that effective and affordable malaria prevention is achievable.
In Ethiopia, despite the increasing availability of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs), the LLINs use among LLINs owning households has not been satisfactory. Identifying the circumstances and the associated factors is necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets. We aimed to assess barriers related with LLIN use at the household level.
Age is a key factor determining the susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, not only in laboratory studies, but in response to field-based vector control interventions.
Vapour-phase repellents may be more acceptable, practical and effective than contact insecticides for preventing outdoor malaria transmission because they need not be applied to skin or clothing and may protect multiple occupants of spaces outside of treatable structures such as nets or houses.
The study not only confirmed that education and SEP play important roles in the prevention and control of malaria and promotion of health in general, but pointed at the basic essential knowledge and the key behavioural elements that should guide education and learning processes among the poorer segments of the population.
Emphasizing that net usage is acceptable and important for all family members regardless of age or gender, and addressing the complex behavioural economics of alternative net usages could have significant impacts on malaria control efforts in Timor-Leste, as the country's programmes make progress towards universal net coverage.
This study showed that unwashed PermaNet(R) 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet(R) 2.0 and the CTN.
This study provides evidence that recent declines in malaria transmission and prevalence may shift the age groups at risk of malaria infection to older children.
A national-level LLIN distribution strategy that fully engaged local government authorities helped avoid additional burden on the healthcare system.