We have analyzed the profiles of 23 of Plasmodium falciparum strains for their in vitro chemosusceptibilities to piperaquine (PPQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, pyrimethamine, and doxycycline (DOX) in association with polymorphisms in genes involved in quinoline resistance (Plasmodium falciparum crt [pfcrt], pfmdr1, pfmrp, and pfnhe).
To assess the contribution of specific malaria interventions and other general factors in bringing about these changes, we reviewed studies that have reported recent changes in the incidence or prevalence of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.
We utilize the recent successful overexpression of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum multi-drug resistance transporter, purification and reconstitution of the protein, and a novel high affinity chloroquine analogue to probe hypothesized interaction between the transporter and quinoline drugs.
The quinoline scaffold is prevalent in a variety of pharmacologically active synthetic and natural compounds. The discovery of chloroquine, the most famous drug containing this scaffold resulted in control and eradication of malaria for decades. The other known antimalarial drugs from the quinoline family include: quinine, amodiaquine, piperaquine, primaquine, and mefloquine.
The aim of the study was to assess the in vitro potentiating effects of atorvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, in combination with mefloquine, chloroquine or monodesethylamodiaquine against Plasmodium falciparum and to evaluate whether the effects of atorvastatin could be associated with mutations or gene copy number in multidrug resistance (MDR)-like protein genes.
Although significant progress has been made in clinical development, a protective malaria vaccine remains elusive. Here we review some of the immune subversive mechanisms used by the Plasmodium malaria parasite and propose a potentially effective strategy to achieve complete protection that may serve as a blue print for clinical usage.
A series of hybrid molecules 2-[3-(7-Chloro-quinolin-4-ylamino)-alkyl]-1-(substituted phenyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-β-carbolines have been synthesized and screened for their in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
PCR-HRM is an inexpensive option for the determination of drug resistance profile in P. falciparum and will see increasing use as an alternative to sequencing and 5'nuclease PCR assays in reference laboratories or once PCR systems that are able to conduct HRM become commonplace.
The chemical investigation of the liana Strychnos moandaensis De Wild. led to the isolation of moandaensine, a novel dimeric indole alkaloid.
Our results suggest some minimal conditions to apply these tests that should give rise to a standard 50% inhibitory concentration, regardless of the mechanism of action of the compounds, and highlight that the most commonly used in vitro antimalarial activity tests do not have the same potential.