The loss of chloroquine due to selection and spread of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites has greatly impacted malaria control, especially in highly endemic areas of Africa.
Reports of potential drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium malariae in western Indonesia raise concerns that chloroquine resistance may be emerging in P. malariae and P. ovale.
These results suggest that sequence variations in the DHFR-TS represent the prevalence of antifolate-resistant P. vivax in Korea.
Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in P. falciparum is strongly linked to mutations in the gene pfcrt that gives rise to the protein, PfCRT (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter), located in the parasite's digestive vacuole (DV) membrane .
This study demonstrates that consumers require access to correct and comprehensible information associated with use of drugs, including self-prescription.
The objective of this review is to summarize the existing evidence on the relative efficacy and safety of CQ in treating patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in endemic countries.
These results highlight the limits of the current in vitro tests routinely used to monitor CQ drug resistance in this unique context. Gaining insight about the mechanisms that regulate polymorphism in Pfmdr1 remains important, particularly regarding the evolution and spread of Pfmdr-1 alleles in P. falciparum populations under changing drug pressure which may have important consequences in terms of antimalarial use management.
This work provides the first insight into drug resistance markers of P. falciparum in the SI. The obtained results indicated the presence of a very homogenous P. falciparum population circulating in the community.
Quindolone derivatives, designed to target the malaria parasite digestive vacuole and heme detoxification pathway, have been synthesized by reaction with 2-chloro-N,N-diethylethanamine.
Chloroquine plus primaqine is an inexpensive and highly effective treatment for uncomplicated knowlesi malaria infections in humans and there is no evidence of drug resistance.