Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study measured protection afforded by transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons to users (personal and communal protection) and non-users (only communal protection), and whether introducing mosquito traps as additional intervention influenced these benefits.
insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)
Most impact prediction of malaria vector control interventions has been based on African vectors. Anopheles albimanus, the main vector in Central America and the Caribbean, has higher intrinsic mortality, is more zoophilic and less likely to rest indoors. Therefore, relative impact among interventions may be different. Prioritizing interventions, in particular for eliminating Plasmodium falciparum from Haiti, should consider local vector characteristics.
To accelerate malaria elimination in areas where core interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are already widely used, it is crucial to consider additional factors associated with persistent transmission.
Net use conditional on access is affected by household characteristics and is also spatially-dependent in Ghana.
This study found no association between frequency of resistance and incidence of clinical malaria in an area where ITNs are the principal form of vector control.
Malaria transmission in Ifakara has decreased by > 99% since early-2000s, reaching levels nearly undetectable with current entomological methods.
The two household-level indicators—one representing minimal coverage, the other only ‘universal’ coverage—provide an incomplete and potentially misleading picture of personal protection and the success of an ITN distribution programme.
The prevalence of IRS and ITN interventions in 2013 did not reflect the Namibian government intervention targets.
Relevant knowledge of ITNs translated into the expected preventive behaviour of sleeping under a bed net, underscoring the need for continued health messaging on malaria prevention.
ITN access and use improved significantly in the study area during the pilot, coming close to universal coverage targets.