Desbutyl-lumefantrine (DBL) is a metabolite of lumefantrine. Preliminary data from Plasmodium falciparum field isolates show greater antimalarial potency than, and synergy with, the parent compound and synergy with artemisinin.
Protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides have remarkably suppressive activity during early infection, while acidic ginseng polysaccharides have significant prophylactic activity against malaria by stimulating the immune system.
Alongside the deployment of multifocal control programs, the process ranging from artemisia crop production to accreditation of new ACT combinations urgently needs to be strengthened to supply sufficient quantities of high-quality drugs.
In this review different models of artemisinins’ molecular action are briefly presented, focusing on recent advances, and the evidence of potential association between various gene polymorphisms and artemisinin resistance is comprehensively reviewed.
Recent reports suggest that early stages of resistance to artemisinins and/or its partner drugs could be occurring, thus it is timely to briefly review exactly how ACTs slow the origin and spread of resistance and to interpret the threat of resistance within this context.
In this study, we examined the relationship between the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes and resistance to the artemisinin-based drug arteether in experimentally selected arteether-resistant Plasmodium vinckei.
Our results suggest that these two compounds have antimalarial activities, and the IC50 values (0.025–0.032 μg/ml) are similar to the IC50 value of the standard drug chloroquine used in the bioassay. Lineweaver–Burk plots for inhibition of plasmepsin II by LCu(CH3COO)2 and LCuCl2 show that the inhibition is competitive with respect to the substrate.
Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds.
Antimalarial, antibacterial and combined rectal formulations are likely to be cost-effective interventions for severe febrile illness in the community.
We did a systematic review of P falciparum malaria drug-efficacy studies in India to summarise drug-resistance data and describe changes over the past 30 years to inform future policy.