In this review, progress on selected protein kinases is described. As the search for novel antimalarials continues, an understanding of the phosphor-regulatory pathways will not only validate protein kinase targets, but also will identify novel chemotypes to thwart malaria drug resistance.
This short review tells the story of how Reversed Chloroquine drugs (RCQs) were developed.
The introduction of artemisinin and artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) in 2005 has begun to reverse the trend. While this is a good sign, there have been reports of resistance to artemisinin in Southeast Asia .
We provide first evidence of emergence of the CVMNT haplotype in West Africa. The high prevalence of pfcrt CVIET and SVMNT haplotypes in Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, is indicative of different selective pressure by chloroquine and amodiaquine.
These results provide insight into basic design principles for generating new clinically relevant lead peptides. It also provides an alternative strategy where a peptide and a non-peptide drug can be used in combination to battle increasingly drug-resistant microbes.
Collectively, our results show that high-content live cell-imaging (HCLCI) can be used to screen chemical libraries and identify parasite specific inhibitors with limited host cytotoxic effects.
Results of this study can be used as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations in the effort for search of new and locally affordable antimalarial agents.
We previously reported the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial potencies of 1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro[7.11]nonadecane (N-89) and 6-(1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro[7.11]nonadec-4-yl)hexan-1-ol (N-251) against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites.
Acyclic monoterpenes, monoterpene hydroperoxide, bicyclic monoterpene glycosides and unusual monoterpenes have been found in some Iranian Artemisia species.
AMFm-subsidized anti-malarials are considerably less expensive than unsubsidized AL, but the price difference between effective and ineffective therapies is still large.