Where universal coverage targets for LLIN utilization has been achieved, supplementing LLINs with IRS using pyrethroids may reduce malaria transmission below levels achieved by LLIN use alone, even in settings where pyrethroid resistance occurs in the vector population.
LLINs had a significant impact on malaria transmission, despite exophagic and crepuscular feeding behaviours of dominant vectors.
Malaria transmission continues to be high around Lake Victoria.
The results showed that vaccinating Malawian children with RTS,S vaccines was very cost-effective from both a societal and a health service perspective
Attention needs to be given to the poor, distant and inaccessible households in the efforts of malaria intervention programmes, such as free distribution of LLINs/ITNs.
Shifts towards crepuscular host searching behaviour can be as important in reducing LLIN effectiveness and cost effectiveness as resistance to pyrethroids.
Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there is need for complimentary distribution strategies between mass distribution campaigns.