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primaquine

Formation primaquine-5,6-orthoquinone, the putative active and toxic metabolite of primaquine via direct oxidation in human erythrocytes

February 5, 2019 - 16:21 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Pius S. Fasinu, N. P. Dhammika Nanayakkara, Larry A. Walker, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:30, 30 January 2019

This study presents new evidence that primaquine-5,6-orthoquinone, the metabolite of primaquine reflecting the oxidative biotransformation pathway, is generated in erythrocytes, probably by non-enzymatic means, and may not require transport from the liver or other tissues.

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Evaluation of Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence in Brazil

January 22, 2019 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
André Daher, Júlio C. A. L. Silva, Antony Stevens, Paola Marchesini, C. J. Fontes, F. O. Ter Kuile and David G. Lalloo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:18, 22 January 2019

Short course primaquine was as effective as 14-day regimens and associated with a halving of the risk and delay in time to recurrence of P. vivax infections in comparison to chloroquine alone.

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Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of G6PD deficiency in Bengali adults with severe and uncomplicated malaria

April 5, 2017 - 14:45 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Katherine Plewes, Ingfar Soontarawirat, Charles J. Woodrow, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2017 16:134, 29 March 2017

Control of malaria increasingly involves administration of 8-aminoquinolines, with accompanying risk of haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

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G6PD deficiency in male individuals infected by Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: a cost study

March 25, 2015 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henry M Peixoto, Marcelo Brito, Gustavo Romero, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus de Lacerda, Maria de Oliveira
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2015, 14:126 (24 March 2015)

The results indicate that the use of primaquine among men with G6PDd who are infected by P. vivax represents a heavy burden on the public health service of Brazil.

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Enantioselective metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6

December 22, 2014 - 13:54 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Fasinu PS, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2014, 13 :507 (17 December 2014)

The metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6 and the generation of its metabolites display enantio-selectivity regarding formation of hydroxylated product profiles.

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NOT Open Access | Persistence and activation of malaria hypnozoites in long-term primary hepatocyte cultures

March 12, 2014 - 12:55 -- NOT Open Access
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Author(s): 
Laurent Dembele, Jean-Francois Franetich, Dominique Mazier, et al.
Reference: 
Nature Medicine, 20, 307–312 (2014)

Malaria relapses, resulting from the activation of quiescent hepatic hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, hinder global efforts to control and eliminate malaria.

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Column: Sleepless in the liver: would revisiting the past give any directions on how to deal with hypnozoite carriers of P. vivax?

February 6, 2014 - 20:51 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Many of the recent strategies to improve malaria control have been focusing on improving the detection of very low parasitaemias to identify asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium sp. to reduce the infective reservoir. Although these strategies are extremely rational and sensible to tackle most of malaria infections, they will probably not be sufficient to achieve elimination for parasites that present relapses, as is the case for Plasmodium vivax. The need to look for new and sophisticated methods has been exhaustively stressed by researchers, however, at this time, revisiting a simple and efficient strategy successfully employed in the past could prove to be a path to be followed...

Spatial distribution of G6PD deficiency variants across malaria-endemic regions

November 25, 2013 - 12:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Howes RE, Dewi M, Piel FB, Monteiro WM, Battle KE, Messina JP, Sakuntabhai A, Satyagraha AW, Williams TN, Baird J, Hay SI
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2013, 12 :418 (15 November 2013)
MalariaWorld

G6PD variants exhibited distinctive region-specific distributions with important primaquine policy implications. Relative homogeneity in the Americas, Africa, and western Asia contrasted sharply with the heterogeneity of variants in China, Southeast Asia and Oceania.

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G6PD Deficiency Prevalence and Estimates of Affected Populations in Malaria Endemic Countries: A Geostatistical Model-Based Map

December 4, 2012 - 07:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosalind E. Howes, Frédéric B. Piel, Anand P. Patil, Oscar A. Nyangiri, Peter W. Gething, Mewahyu Dewi, Mariana M. Hogg, Katherine E. Battle, Carmencita D. Padilla, J. Kevin Baird, Simon I. Hay
Reference: 
PLoS Med 9(11): e1001339
MalariaWorld

G6PDd is widespread and spatially heterogeneous across most MECs where primaquine would be valuable for malaria control and elimination.

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Intervention Review: Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission

October 24, 2012 - 15:51 -- Patrick Sampao
Author(s): 
Patricia M Graves, Hellen Gelband, Paul Garner
Reference: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD008152

MalariaWorldTwo authors (PMG and HG) independently screened all abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and abstracted data. We sought data on the effect of PQ on malaria transmission intensity, participant infectiousness, the number of participants with gametocytes, and gametocyte density over time. 

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