This study presents new evidence that primaquine-5,6-orthoquinone, the metabolite of primaquine reflecting the oxidative biotransformation pathway, is generated in erythrocytes, probably by non-enzymatic means, and may not require transport from the liver or other tissues.
Short course primaquine was as effective as 14-day regimens and associated with a halving of the risk and delay in time to recurrence of P. vivax infections in comparison to chloroquine alone.
Control of malaria increasingly involves administration of 8-aminoquinolines, with accompanying risk of haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
The results indicate that the use of primaquine among men with G6PDd who are infected by P. vivax represents a heavy burden on the public health service of Brazil.
The metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6 and the generation of its metabolites display enantio-selectivity regarding formation of hydroxylated product profiles.
Malaria relapses, resulting from the activation of quiescent hepatic hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, hinder global efforts to control and eliminate malaria.
G6PD variants exhibited distinctive region-specific distributions with important primaquine policy implications. Relative homogeneity in the Americas, Africa, and western Asia contrasted sharply with the heterogeneity of variants in China, Southeast Asia and Oceania.
G6PDd is widespread and spatially heterogeneous across most MECs where primaquine would be valuable for malaria control and elimination.
Two authors (PMG and HG) independently screened all abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and abstracted data. We sought data on the effect of PQ on malaria transmission intensity, participant infectiousness, the number of participants with gametocytes, and gametocyte density over time.