The global use of DDT has not changed substantially since the Stockholm Convention entered into force.
An analytically feasible, deterministic model for the spread of drug resistance among human malaria parasites, which incorporates all characteristics of the complex malaria-transmission cycle was introduced by Schneider and Kim (Theor. Popul Biol, 2010).
Drug resistance in malaria and in tuberculosis (TB) are major global health problems. Although the terms multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB are precisely defined, the term multidrug resistance is often loosely used when discussing malaria.
In the dry season, the kdr frequency was significantly higher in Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes, indicating that mosquitoes bearing a kdr mutation have a better adult survival, hence a higher likelihood of becoming infectious.
If chloroquine reduced ASB activity, leading to increased chondroitin-4-sulphation, it was hypothesized that the anti-malarial mechanism of chloroquine might derive, at least in part, from suppression of ASB.
This review summarizes the current status and the challenges to effective surveillance, and suggests approaches for improvement.