Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), improved diagnosis and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have reduced malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea since 2008. Yet, national incidence trends are inconclusive due to confounding effects of the scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests, and inconsistencies in routine reporting.
artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT)
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in areas of emerging chloroquine resistance. We undertook a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) with or without primaquine (PQ) on the risk of recurrent P. vivax.
Febrile children seen in malaria hypo-endemic settings, such as the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana are more likely to be suffering from a non-malarial febrile illness compared to those seen in hyper-endemic settings. The need for prescribers to rely on malaria test results to guide treatment practices in the GAR is even greater. This study was designed to investigate the factors associated with inappropriate artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) prescription.
Activation of hypnozoites of vivax malaria causes multiple clinical relapses, which contribute to the Plasmodium vivax burden and continuing transmission. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is effective against blood-stage P. vivax but requires co-administration with primaquine to achieve radical cure. The therapeutic efficacy of primaquine depends on the generation of a therapeutically active metabolite via cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Impaired CYP2D6 metabolism has been associated with primaquine treatment failure. This study investigated the association between impaired CYP2D6 genotypes, drug-exposure to the long-acting ACT component (schizonticidal drugs) and tolerance and efficacy.
Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causative agent of malaria, has high prevalence in Nigeria. Drug resistance causing failure of previously effective drugs has compromised anti-malarial treatment. On this basis, there is need for a proactive surveillance for resistance markers to the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), for early detection of resistance before it become widespread.
HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) require treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) when infected with malaria. Dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DPQ) is recommended for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but its efficacy and safety has not been evaluated in HIV-infected individuals on ART, among whom drug–drug interactions are expected. Day-42 adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) and incidence of adverse events were assessed in HIV-infected individuals on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART (efavirenz and nevirapine) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria treated with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine.
Ensuring universal access to malaria diagnosis and treatment is a key component of Pillar 1 of the World Health Organization Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016–2030. To achieve this goal it is essential to know the types of facilities where the population seeks care as well as the malaria service readiness of these facilities in endemic countries.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum is among the major public health problems in most endemic areas of the world. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria almost in all endemic regions. Since ineffectively regulated medicines in resource limited settings could favour infiltration of poor quality anti-malarial medicines into pharmaceutical supply chain and jeopardize a positive treatment outcome, regular monitoring of the quality of anti-malarial medicines is critical. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of fixed dose combination (FDC) artemether (ART)/lumefantrine (LUM) tablets available in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.
Routine surveillance on the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been ongoing in Ghana since 2005. The sixth round of surveillance was conducted between 2015 and 2017 to determine the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate–amodiaquine (AS–AQ) and artemether–lumefantrine (AL) in 10 sentinel sites across the country.
The population pharmacokinetic models developed for both AS/DHA and MQ showed a large variability in drug exposure in the investigated African paediatric population.