Global production and global use of DDT have shown a modest decline since the adoption of the Stockholm Convention.
Overall, this study confirmed the role of the environment in shaping insecticide resistance in mosquitoes with a major impact of agriculture activities.
Anopheles arabiensis larval development is prolonged by nutrient deprivation and adults that eclose from starved larvae are smaller and less tolerant to DDT intoxication.
Pyrethroid insecticides are critical for malaria control in Africa.
Despite the progress that has been made in malaria control and treatment, it remains a serious global health problem.1 Several malarial countries, including some that are striving to eliminate the disease, still rely on dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for vector control.
We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors.
This study reports the findings of a meta-regression analysis based on 13 published studies, which were chosen from more than 400 articles through a systematic search and selection process.
The organochlorine insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still used for malaria vector control in certain areas of South Africa.
The present findings show that the change-over of insecticide from synthetic pyrethroids to DDT brings about the same epidemiological impact as envisaged from continuing SP spray or distributing insecticide treated nets/long-lasting insecticidal nets provided there is a good quality spray and house coverage.
Insecticide resistance is an ideal model to study the emergence and spread of adaptative variants.