Malaria parasites undergo several stages in their complex lifecycle. To achieve reductions in both the individual disease burden and malaria transmission within communities, a multi-stage malaria vaccine with high effectiveness and durability is a more efficacious strategy compared with a single-stage vaccine.
Many promising vaccine candidates from pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites are unstable and cannot be produced cheaply for clinical use.
We describe a framework that measures the impact of a health policy decision on government accounts over many generations. The methodological issues emerging from this approach are illustrated with an example from a recently completed health investment life course analysis of malaria vaccination in Ghana.
The Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) is a protein necessary for P. vivax invasion of reticulocytes.
The study findings illustrate the importance of IgG3 associated to 2-months of symptomless in P. vivax infected individuals and open perspectives for the rationale of malaria vaccine designs capable to sustain high levels of IgG3 against polymorphic malaria antigens.
Plasmodium falciparum infections present novel challenges for vaccine development, including parasite replication dynamics not previously encountered for viral pathogens, and enormous diversity in target antigens.
Plasmodium falciparum utilizes multiple ligand-receptor interactions for invasion.
The protective immunity induced by the whole-killed parasite vaccine against malarial blood-stage infection is dependent on the CD4+ T cell response.
Translational control of gene expression plays an essential role in development
The maximum-impact setting is one in which the impact of increasing bed net coverage has saturated, vector feeding is primarily outdoors, and transmission is just above the threshold where small perturbations from a vaccine intervention result in large community benefits.