Plasmodium falciparum msp1, msp2 and glurp markers were highly polymorphic with low allele frequencies. A total of 17 msp1 genotypes [eight MAD20-, one RO33- and eight K1-types]; 116 msp2 genotypes [83 3D7 and 33 FC27- types] and 14 glurp genotypes were recorded.
The results indicate high prevalence of in vivo resistance to chloroquine, whereas high grade resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine does not appear to be widespread among P. falciparum in southern Pakistan.
The atmospheric generators for capnophilic bacteria Genbag CO2(R) is an appropriate technology that can be transferred to the field for epidemiological surveys of drug-resistant malaria.
Empiric treatment of all suspected cases of malaria was cheaper (in the end of dry to beginning of rainy season) than only treating those who had microscopy confirmed diagnoses of malaria even though the majority of patients suspected to have malaria were negative via microscopy.
'Immune' plasma containing anti-malarial antibodies inhibits parasite development and multiplication and increases apparent in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility of P. falciparum.
Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment.
In this study, an isolated, perfused guinea pig heart system was constructed to assess the cardiotoxic potential of anti-malarial drugs.
The finding documents the presence of this mutant allele in Indonesia, and implies that selection pressure on the Anopheles population in this area has occurred. Further studies to determine the impact of the resistance allele on the efficacy of pyrethroids in control programmes are needed.
Large studies, particularly in Africa where children represent a major proportion of treated cases, will require a simpler blood sample collection regime, and a method capable of high throughput.
These data indicate important differences in the spectrum of anti-bacterial activity for the evaluated anti-malarial drugs.