Control programmes for high burden countries are tasked with charting effective multi-year strategies for malaria control within significant resource constraints. Synergies between different control tools, in which more than additive benefit accrues from interventions used together, are of interest because they may be used to obtain savings or to maximize health impact per expenditure. One commonly used intervention in sub-Saharan Africa is indoor residual spraying (IRS), typically deployed through a mass campaign. While possible synergies between IRS and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been investigated in multiple transmission settings, coordinated synergy between IRS and other mass medical distribution campaigns have not attracted much attention. Recently, a strong timing-dependent synergy between an IRS campaign and a mass drug administration (MDA) was theoretically quantified. These synergistic benefits likely differ across settings depending on transmission intensity and its overall seasonal pattern.
long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs)
The best configuration of push–pull comprised transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons plus two traps, each at least 15 m from huts.
Two review authors independently reviewed trials for inclusion, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias.
The co-occurrence of 1014F and 1014S alleles and the probable involvement of GSTs enzymes in insecticide resistance in An. gambiae s.l. should prompt the local vector programme to implement non-pyrethroid/DDT insecticides alternatives.
Control of mosquito-borne diseases is greatly compromised by spread of insecticide resistance, high implementation costs and sub-optimal compliance among users.
LLINs had a significant impact on malaria transmission, despite exophagic and crepuscular feeding behaviours of dominant vectors.
The study shows evidence of considerable heterogeneity in both insecticide susceptibility and the level of bio-efficacy of commonly available types of LLINs against wild A. funestus and A. gambiae from Balama, Mocuba and Milange districts, located in north and centre of Mozambique.
This model simulates conditions where P. knowlesi transmission may occur and the potential impact of control measures.
Anopheles gambiae s.s has developed phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids and DDT and kdr frequency has almost reached fixation.