These data emphasise the complexity associated with resistance phenotypes and suggest that specific insecticide resistance mechanisms cannot be extrapolated to different vector populations of the same species.
The malaria control project in Monrovia constituted the first large-scale use of synthetic insecticide to combat malaria in tropical Africa, and the WHO pilot project in Central Province was one of a first cluster of projects initiated to explore the efficacy of IRS in a variety of African ecological zones.
Here, we use a probabilistic risk assessment approach to estimate the risks to Africans from inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures to the newer LLINs with permethrin, α-cypermethrin, or deltamethrin as the insecticide active ingredient.
Monitoring of the mosquito population in and around cattle sheds during dusk revealed no significant decline (P > 0.05) of vector density during the post-intervention period in study localities.
The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb.
Laboratory studies with susceptible and resistant strains of An. culicifacies and An. stephensi, coupled with limited field studies with multiple insecticide-resistant An. culicifacies have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a suitable insecticide for malaria vector control, in multiple insecticide resistant mosquitoes especially in areas with pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes.
The effectiveness of insecticide based vector control methods is hampered there by the development of insecticide resistance.
Our results suggest that in regions where use of vector control interventions is high and vector densities are low, CDC light traps can be used to monitor An. arabiensis HBRs.
Because insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have the potential to alter host feeding behavior, the extent of the zoophilic and exophagic tendencies of the vector was evaluated during the two rainy seasons after ITN introduction.
Spatially defined data on coverage of treated nets from recent national household surveys in Kenya were used within a Bayesian geostatistical framework to predict treated net coverage nationally.