The work of Pooda et al. published in Malaria Journal provides encouraging evidence of the potential use of systemic insecticides in cattle as a complementary means to further reduce residual malaria transmission that persists despite high coverage of current front-line vector measures, namely long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual sprays (IRS).
long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)
This case study focuses on the developed methodology while also highlighting the significant research gaps which must be filled to guide countries on the most effective strategy for IRS targeting in the context of universal LLIN coverage and evolving insecticide resistance.
Analyses of microsatellite loci from seven (2006) and nine settlements (2012–2014) in the Iquitos area detected two distinctive populations with little overlap, although it is unclear whether this population replacement event is associated with LLIN distribution or climate.
Even though personal protection by LLINs against feeding mosquitoes is strongly reduced by holes, the insecticidal effect of LLINs is independent of the holed surface area, but strongly dependent on insecticide resistance.
Modified MLBs can be used as efficient and long-lasting dispensers of volatile spatial repellents such as transfluthrin, thereby providing high levels of protection against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in the peri-domestic space.
At 27 − 30 months, LLINs already had a large total hole surface area that was equivalent to the oldest nets observed.
These results confirm that the presence of cattle at the household level can significantly alter the local species composition, feeding and resting behaviour of malaria vectors.
Although, majority of studied population were aware of the symptoms and cause of malaria, a majority had misconceptions about LLINs.
Respondents considered both aesthetics and malaria protection important when deciding whether, when, and how to care for and repair nets.
Although topical repellents can provide individual protection against mosquitoes, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that topical repellents are unlikely to provide effective protection against malaria.