Malaria transmission has been substantially reduced across Africa through the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs).
long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)
These continuous LLIN distribution channels appear to be under-utilized, especially EPI-based distribution.
Two-to-four years after a mass campaign, only 39 % of distributed nets remain both present and in serviceable physical condition, a functional survival considerably below WHO assumptions of 50 % survival of a ‘three-year’ net.
Both East African and Ifakara huts performed in a similar way although Ifakara huts allowed more mosquitoes to enter, increasing data power.
The short duration of the feeding cycle by this species offers an explanation for the substantial control of malaria that has been achieved in the Solomon Islands by LLINs and IRS.
The finding that An. farauti is a homogeneous population is significant, because during the multiple feeding cycles required to complete the extrinsic incubation period, many individual female anophelines will enter houses late at night and be exposed to the insecticides used in LLINs or IRS.
In these countries, stock-outs were the most important single obstacle to the smooth operations of continuous LLIN distribution.
The median functional survival time for LLINs observed the study was 2.5–3 years and insecticide activity and content were markedly decreased by 2 years
A multitude of interplaying factors encouraged consistent LLIN use in this setting.
The work of Pooda et al. published in Malaria Journal provides encouraging evidence of the potential use of systemic insecticides in cattle as a complementary means to further reduce residual malaria transmission that persists despite high coverage of current front-line vector measures, namely long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual sprays (IRS).