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long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)

Health system, socio-cultural, economic, environmental and individual factors influencing bed net use in the prevention of malaria in pregnancy in two Ghanaian regions

November 19, 2019 - 06:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Matilda Aberese-Ako, Pascal Magnussen, Gifty D. Ampofo and Harry Tagbor
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:363, 12 November 2019

Improving maternal health remains a priority to the Ghanaian government. Consequently, it has implemented the World Health Organization recommendation of distributing free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to pregnant women—one of the effective strategies to combating malaria in pregnancy. However, the burden of negative outcomes of malaria in pregnancy such as low birth weight and miscarriages is still high. This may be related to the health system, socio-cultural and economic dynamics that influence LLIN use, but their role is not well understood. This ethnographic study sought to understand health system, socio-cultural, economic and environmental dynamics in utilization of LLINs among pregnant women in two Ghanaian regions.

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Spatiotemporal clustering of malaria in southern-central Ethiopia: A community-based cohort study

October 14, 2019 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tarekegn Solomon, Eskindir Loha, Wakgari Deressa, Taye Gari, Bernt Lindtjørn
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 14(9): e0222986

Understanding the spatiotemporal clustering of malaria transmission would help target interventions in settings of low malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to assess whether malaria infections were clustered in areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) alone, indoor residual spraying (IRS) alone, or a combination of LLINs and IRS interventions, and to determine the risk factors for the observed malaria clustering in southern-central Ethiopia.

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Reduction of malaria vector mosquitoes in a large-scale intervention trial in rural Burkina Faso using Bti based larval source management

September 16, 2019 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter Dambach, Till Baernighausen, Issouf Traoré, Saidou Ouedraogo, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn, Norbert Becker and Valérie R. Louis
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:311, 14 September 2019

Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and death in sub-Saharan Africa. Along with early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), vector control is an important tool in the reduction of new cases. Alongside the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), targeting the vector larvae with biological larvicides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is gaining importance as a means of reducing the number of mosquito larvae before they emerge to their adult stage. This study presents data corroborating the entomological impact of such an intervention in a rural African environment.

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Determinants of long-lasting insecticidal net ownership and utilization in malaria transmission regions: evidence from Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys

August 27, 2019 - 21:42 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Oscar Tapera
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:278, 20 August 2019

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were first introduced in 2010 as a vector control intervention, to complement indoor residual spraying, to reduce malaria transmission in Zimbabwe. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that were associated with LLIN ownership and utilization among households in malaria transmission regions of Zimbabwe.

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Bed net care practices and associated factors in western Kenya

August 19, 2019 - 17:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ellen M. Santos, Jenna E. Coalson, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Yann C. Klimentidis, Stephen Munga, Maurice Agawo, Elizabeth Anderson, Nancy Stroupe and Kacey C. Ernst
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:274, 14 August 2019

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are effective for malaria prevention and are designed to provide nearly 5 years of mosquito protection. However, many ITNs and LLINs become damaged and ineffective for mosquito bite prevention within 1 to 2 years in field conditions. Non-adherence to recommended bed net care and repair practices may partially explain this shortened net longevity.

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Transmission risk beyond the village: entomological and human factors contributing to residual malaria transmission in an area approaching malaria elimination on the Thailand–Myanmar border

July 8, 2019 - 16:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hannah M. Edwards, Patchara Sriwichai, Kirakorn Kirabittir, Jetsumon Prachumsri, Irwin F. Chavez and Jeffrey Hii
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:221, 1 July 2019

A mixed methods study was conducted to look at the magnitude of residual malaria transmission (RMT) and factors contributing to low (< 1% prevalence), but sustained transmission in rural communities on the Thai–Myanmar border.

LLIN Evaluation in Uganda Project (LLINEUP): factors associated with childhood parasitaemia and anaemia 3 years after a national long-lasting insecticidal net distribution campaign: a cross-sectional survey

June 24, 2019 - 16:02 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Sheila Rugnao, Samuel Gonahasa, Sarah G. Staedke, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:207, 24 June 2019

Recent reductions in malaria burden have been attributed largely to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). In March–June 2017, approximately 3 years after a national LLIN distribution campaign, a cross-sectional community survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with malaria parasitaemia and anaemia, in advance of Uganda’s 2017–2018 LLIN campaign.

Impact of combining indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial

May 28, 2019 - 11:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn and Hans J. Overgaard
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:182, 24 May 2019

Indoor residual house spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the key front-line malaria vector interventions against Anopheles arabiensis, the sole primary malaria vector in Ethiopia. Universal coverage of both interventions has been promoted and there is a growing demand in combinations of interventions for malaria control and elimination. This study compared the impact on entomological outcomes of combining IRS and LLINs with either intervention alone in Adami Tullu district, south-central Ethiopia. The epidemiological outcomes were recently published on a separate paper.

Long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying may not be sufficient to eliminate malaria in a low malaria incidence area: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in Ethiopia

April 22, 2019 - 12:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eskindir Loha, Wakgari Deressa, Bernt Lindtjørn, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:141, 18 April 2019

The clinical malaria incidence and anaemia prevalence were similar in the four study groups.

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Use and retention of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in a malaria risk area in the Brazilian Amazon: a 5-year follow-up intervention

March 27, 2019 - 16:01 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Jessica Oliveira de Sousa, Bernardino Claudio de Albuquerque, José Rodrigues Coura and Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:100, 25 March 2019

High ownership and retention of the LLINs was observed in the intervention group.

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