In Ethiopia, malaria infections and other complications during pregnancy contribute to the high burden of maternal morbidity and mortality. Preventive measures are available, however little is known about the factors influencing the uptake of maternal health services and interventions by pregnant women in Ethiopia.
Insecticide-treated net (ITN)
Over the past decade, food insecurity, connected to erratic rains and reduced agricultural outputs, has plagued Malawi. Many households are turning to fishing to seek additional sources of income and food. There is anecdotal evidence that insecticide-treated net (ITN) recipients in Malawi are using their nets for purposes other than sleeping, such as for fishing, protecting crops, and displaying merchandise, among others. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the factors leading residents of waterside communities in Malawi to use ITNs for fishing.
Insecticide-treated net (ITN) durability, measured through physical integrity and bioefficacy, must be accurately assessed in order to plan the timely replacement of worn out nets and guide procurement of longer-lasting, cost-effective nets. World Health Organization (WHO) guidance advises that new intervention class ITNs be assessed 3 years after distribution, in experimental huts. In order to obtain information on whole-net efficacy cost-effectively and with adequate replication, a new bioassay, the Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test (I-ACT), a semi-field whole net assay baited with human host, was compared to established WHO durability testing methods.
This study highlights the high risk of malaria exposure in African urban settings and the high heterogeneity of child exposure to the Anopheles vector between neighbourhoods in the same city.
The findings confirmed the importance of assessing various factors affecting ITN usage among groups of WOCBA.
These findings suggest that the ITN use patterns observed in this study may contribute to residual transmission.
Protection against infection with ITN use varies by age group and season.
Health improvements following malaria intervention scale-up vary with endemicity, seasonality, age and time.
Insecticide-treated net ownership is critical for malaria control.
This study reveals gender disparity in ITN use, with males less likely to use ITNs particularly among ages 15--25 years.