This study does not support the concept that anti-CS antibodies induced by the RTS,S/AS01 vaccines in humans noticeably reduce malaria transmission by blocking P. falciparum sporozoite development or salivary gland invasion in mosquitoes when taken up during feeding.
In this GCE project it was aimed to put a gene encoding a pathogen protein into a mosquito chromosome, causing it to express the protein in its saliva and inject it into animals orhumans during the blood-feeding process. It was anticipated that the host would develop antibodies to the recombinant protein. If transgenic mosquitoes whose saliva contained a vaccine protein against a disease are released in an area where the disease is prevalent, people that are bitten daily by these mosquitoes would develop antibodies to the vaccine protein, and ultimately the entire community would be ‘vaccinated’ against the disease. In this situation, mosquitoes would play the role of vaccine deliverers.
This model gave the rationale for development of recombinant and vectored subunit vaccination strategies that have, however, not yet matched whole sporozoite protective efficacy.
The results obtained from the numerical simulations of the model show that a possible vaccination combined with effective treatment regime would reduce the spread of the disease appreciably.
Immuno-therapy is to therapeutic treatments what vector modification is to vector control. In other words, increasing the self-defense potential of either humans or mosquitoes is addressing the source of the problem for humans and for mosquitoes, both approaches giving a fundamentally hard time to Plasmo. Although I think that techniques like impregnated nets and breeding site reduction will continue to be needed, giving humans (vaccination) and mosquitoes (popcorn wolbachia) the means to fight back Plasmo is leading the true way out of malaria.
This is the first report that demonstrates that a DNA prime/poxvirus boost vaccination regimen induces low levels of malaria parasite growth inhibitory antibodies, which are boosted to high levels upon challenge.
Focusing on the blood stage, we extracted mRNA from pRBCs, PCR-amplified 22 out of the 29 selected genes, and eventually cloned nine of these into a DNA vaccine plasmid, pVAX 200-DEST.
Although significant progress has been made in clinical development, a protective malaria vaccine remains elusive. Here we review some of the immune subversive mechanisms used by the Plasmodium malaria parasite and propose a potentially effective strategy to achieve complete protection that may serve as a blue print for clinical usage.
The immunogenicity of rPvMSP10 was tested in Aotus monkeys, comparing responses induced by formulations with Freund's adjuvant, Montanide ISA720 or aluminum hydroxide.
These data highlight the ability of optimized viral vector prime-boost regimens to generate more protective and sustained CD8+ T-cell responses, and our results encourage a more nuanced assessment of the importance of inducing polyfunctional CD8+ T cells by vaccination.